Główna Basic Polish: A Grammar and Workbook

Basic Polish: A Grammar and Workbook

0 / 0
Jak bardzo podobała Ci się ta książka?
Jaka jest jakość pobranego pliku?
Pobierz książkę, aby ocenić jej jakość
Jaka jest jakość pobranych plików?

Basic Polish presents concise explanations of grammar with related exercises, to build confidence in using the modern language.

Assuming no previous knowledge of Polish, the book’s step-by-step approach guarantees a thorough grounding in the basics of grammar. Each of the forty units introduces particular grammar points. Clear and concise explanations are supported by a wide range of examples and exercises to allow students to practise and consolidate their learning. Later units also reinforce material taught in earlier ones.

Key features include:

  • clear, accessible format
  • many useful language examples
  • jargon-free explanations of grammar
  • abundant exercises with a full answer key
  • notes on the Polish alphabet, pronunciation and stress
  • Polish-English vocabulary
  • subject index.

This second edition has been revised to include updated examples and explanations. It also offers five new appendices containing a comprehensive summary of grammar functions, guidance on studying an inflected language, and helpful information on question words, the important verbs być and mieć and perfective and imperfective verb aspects.

Written by an experienced language teacher and author, Basic Polish is the ideal introduction to the structures and expressions most widely used in spoken and written Polish. It is suitable for both independent use and classroom study.

Rok:
2014
Wydanie:
2
Wydawnictwo:
Routledge
Język:
english
Strony:
268
ISBN 10:
0415726018
ISBN 13:
9780415726016
Serie:
Grammar Workbooks
Plik:
PDF, 735 KB
Ściągnij (pdf, 735 KB)

Możesz być zainteresowany Powered by Rec2Me

 

Najbardziej popularne frazy

 
0 comments
 

To post a review, please sign in or sign up
Możesz zostawić recenzję książki i podzielić się swoimi doświadczeniami. Inni czytelnicy będą zainteresowani Twoją opinią na temat przeczytanych książek. Niezależnie od tego, czy książka ci się podoba, czy nie, jeśli powiesz im szczerze i szczegółowo, ludzie będą mogli znaleźć dla siebie nowe książki, które ich zainteresują.
1

Basic Polish: A Grammar and Workbook

Year:
2014
Language:
english
File:
EPUB, 961 KB
0 / 0
2

Life and Process. Towards a New Biophilosophy

Year:
2014
Language:
english
File:
PDF, 4.65 MB
0 / 0
BASIC POLISH

Basic Polish presents concise explanations of grammar with related
exercises, to build confidence in using the modern language.
Assuming no previous knowledge of Polish, the book’s step-by-step
approach guarantees a thorough grounding in the basics of grammar.
Each of the forty units introduces particular grammar points. Clear and
concise explanations are supported by a wide range of examples and
exercises to allow students to practise and consolidate their learning.
Later units also reinforce material taught in earlier ones.
Key features include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

clear, accessible format
many useful language examples
jargon-free explanations of grammar
abundant exercises with a full answer key
notes on the Polish alphabet, pronunciation and stress
Polish–English vocabulary
subject index.

This second edition has been revised to include updated examples and
explanations. It also offers five new appendices containing a comprehensive
summary of grammar functions, guidance on studying an inflected
language, and helpful information on question words, the important
verbs byD and mieD and perfective and imperfective verb aspects.
Written by an experienced language teacher and author, Basic Polish is
the ideal introduction to the structures and expressions most widely used in
spoken and written Polish. It is suitable for both independent use and
classroom study.
Dana Bielec is the author of the popular Polish: An Essential Grammar
and Intermediate Polish: A Grammar and Workbook, both published by
Routledge.

Other titles available in the Grammar Workbooks series are:
Basic Arabic
Basic Cantonese
Intermediate Cantonese
Basic Chinese
Intermediate Chinese
Basic German
Intermediate German
Basic Irish
Intermediate Irish
Basic Italian
Basic Japanese
Intermediate Japanese
Basic Korean
Intermediate Korean
Basic Persian
Intermediate Persian
Basic Polish
Intermediate Polish
Basic Russian
Intermediate Russian
Basic Spanish
Intermediate Spanish
Basic Welsh
Intermediate Welsh
Basic Yiddish

Titles of related interes; t published by Routledge
Polish: An Essential Grammar by Dana Bielec
Polish: A Comprehensive Grammar by Iwona Sadowska

BASIC POLISH:
A GRAMMAR AND
WORKBOOK
2nd edition
Dana Bielec

First published 2002 by Routledge
This second edition published 2015
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
and by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2002, 2015 Dana Bielec
The right of Dana Bielec to be identified as author of this work has been asserted
by her in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents
Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised
in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter
invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered
trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent
to infringe.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Bielec, Dana, 1948–
Basic Polish : a grammar and workbook / Dana Bielec. – Second edition.
pages cm. – (Grammar workbooks Series)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Polish language–Textbooks for foreign speakers–English. 2. Polish
language–Grammar. I. Title.
PG6112.B26 2014
491.8′582421–dc23
2014011036
ISBN: 978-0-415-72602-3 (hbk)
ISBN: 978-0-415-72601-6 (pbk)
ISBN: 978-1-315-75452-9 (ebk)
Typeset in Times Ten
by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong

To John Moule, my wonderful best friend and
constant encourager, who patted the rabbits and
dreamed up the treats.

This page intentionally left blank

CONTENTS

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Introduction
List of abbreviations

ix
xi

Alphabet; pronunciation; stress
Noun genders; adjective agreement; personal pronouns;
byq; address forms
Nouns and adjectives in the plural
Plural of ‘men’ nouns and adjectives
Direct object (feminine and neuter)
Verbs with present tense -am, -a, -ajn
Direct object of masculine nouns (accusative case)
Prepositions followed by accusative case
Direct object (singular) of masculine ‘alive’ nouns
Direct object (plural) of masculine ‘men’ nouns
Direct object pronouns; prepositional pronouns (accusative)
Possession (singular nouns)
Possession (plural nouns); whose
Genitive case of adjectives
Prepositions followed by genitive case
Verbs with genitive case object; prepositional
pronouns (genitive)
Verbs with present tense -em, -e, -ejn/-edzn
Cardinal numbers 1 to 4
Numbers 5 to 20; indefinite numbers; quantities
Ordinal numbers 1 to 20; name; age
Questions
Verbs ending in -owaq, -iwaq, -awaq, -ywaq; verb aspects
Negation; simple conjunctions; there is/are; something

1
6
12
18
23
26
28
31
34
37
39
43
50
55
59
63
67
70
74
80
84
87
92

vii

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Contents

Indirect object (singular); verbs with present tense -o, -y, -n
Indirect object (plural); dative case prepositions
More verbs with present tense -o, -y, -n
Dative case of pronouns
Pronoun sio; verbs with present tense -io/-o, -i, -in/-n
Instrumental case (nouns, adjectives)
Other uses of instrumental case
Prepositions followed by instrumental case
Verbs with two imperfective forms
Locative case (nouns, prepositions)
Locative case (adjectives, pronouns)
This, that, such, what like, which
My, your, etc., own
Each, every, all
Clock time
Byq (past, future); days
Months; seasons; time expressions
Dual-case prepositions

Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix

1: How grammar works
2: Studying an inflected language
3: Question words
4: Verbs byq and mieq – all tenses
5: Perfective and imperfective verb aspects

Key to exercises
Polish–English vocabulary
Index

viii

99
106
109
112
116
121
126
129
133
137
145
149
153
158
161
166
170
176
180
195
204
206
210
216
242
253

INTRODUCTION

This grammar workbook is designed for English speakers. It assumes no
previous knowledge of Polish and so covers, in its vocabulary and grammar, the most important areas of Polish social and cultural experience.
You will easily learn the language structures and expressions most widely
used in spoken and written Polish. On completion, armed only with a good
basic dictionary, you will communicate effectively in the present tense with
Polish speakers.
Polish is difficult for those not familiar with inflected languages. The
exercises accompanying each grammar unit progress from simple to more
complex. They are designed so that they can be completed successfully
with a good grasp of the inherent grammar points. Each unit presents new
material but also strongly reinforces that taught in previous units. Therefore,
you are advised to complete Units 1 to 4, then revise Units 1 and 2; complete Units 5 and 6, revise Units 3 and 4, and so forth. By doing so, you
will gain most from the cumulative and structured teaching methods applied
in this book. You will build a solid foundation of basic Polish, which can
later be extended. Above all, by allowing time for revision, you will grow
in confidence and, unhampered by incomplete learning, actually absorb
new information more easily and more rapidly.
This book has no accompanying tape recordings. There are, however,
enough examples of current usage in each unit for you to record them
for use at your leisure. Perfect pronunciation is not critical. You will
benefit immensely from hearing yourself in your own voice repeating the
examples. To master the pronunciation of a language you must listen
and repeat. Your pronunciation will, thereby, become sufficiently good for
you to enjoy speaking the language; enjoyment itself will lead to further
improvement.
A word of caution. Regional variations in vowel sounds exist in all
languages, so you may not immediately understand every inhabitant of
a small village or a person from the mountains. However, they will understand you and usually adapt their regional sounds to reflect standard
pronunciation.
ix

Introduction

Recommended reference works
(Always use the latest published edition.)
Dana Bielec, Polish: An Essential Grammar, and Intermediate Polish: A Grammar
and Workbook, both published by Routledge.
Klara Janecki, 301 Polish Verbs (Barron’s Educational Series, New York). This lists
the most useful verbs alphabetically, giving their imperfective and perfective
aspects, in all their tenses.
4-volume English–Polish: Polish–English Dictionary (2 volumes each way) published
by Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw.

A word about pocket dictionaries
When choosing a dictionary, ensure that it gives the kind of information
needed by English students of Polish, i.e. pronunciation of the Polish word,
genitive singular (difficult to predict in masculine nouns) and an indication
of whether a verb is perfective or imperfective. If not, the dictionary is
aimed at Polish students of English. Consider:
Size. An adequate dictionary lists around 45,000 words. Smaller ones not
only list fewer words but are also more likely to list only the most common meanings of a word. Take several dictionaries of different size, look
up some common English words and then cross-check by looking up each
given Polish word. How much information is given? Does it make sense?
Content. For each word, a dictionary should state the part of speech (e.g.
noun, verb) and any unusual features of the word like unexpected plural
forms (e.g. dziecko: dzieci). Many users miss out by not understanding this
information.
Print size and colour. The print size must be large enough to read clearly
(e.g. i and j may look identical in a small print size). Dictionaries with
headwords in a different colour are easier to use quickly.
Age. Language changes as new words appear. Ideally, use a dictionary no
older than 3 years.
Dana Bielec is an experienced multilingual language tutor with a specialist qualification in the teaching of dyslexic students.

x

ABBREVIATIONS

acc.
adj.
adv.
conj.
dat.
dir. obj.
f./fem.
gen.
imperf.
indir. obj.
inst./instr.
loc.
m./masc.
n./neut.
nom.
obj.
perf.
pl.
prep.
pron.
sing.
subj.

accusative case
adjective
adverb
conjunction
dative case
direct object
feminine gender
genitive case
imperfective verb
indirect object
instrumental case
locative case
masculine gender
neuter gender
nominative case
object
perfective verb
plural
preposition
pronoun
singular
subject

xi

This page intentionally left blank

Alphabet; pronunciation; stress

Alphabet
a a b c d d e b f g h i j k l ł m n f o ó p (q) r s h t u (v) w (x) y z i j
( ) marks letters imported in foreign words. The diacritical mark found
on letters d, f, h, and i is, for simplicity, referred to as an ‘accent’ in
this book.

Pronunciation
Polish has no silent letters. All are said separately, except ch, cz, sz, dv, dw,
rz. In a few words, like marznAD from mróz, rz is two separate letters.
Single vowels
a
e
i
o/oo
u
ó
y

[as in]
hat
met
feet
pot
food
put
dim

Nasal vowels
matka, aleja
tekst, jestem
blisko, ostatni
Polska, zoo
student, ulica
góra, pokój
syn, dobry

i plus following vowel –
softens preceding consonant
and adds hint of y to it:
pies, miasto, anioł, pintek,
Mariusz [pyes, myasto, anyow,
pyontek, Maryoosh]

n
nb, np
o
ob, op
final o
final io

[as in]
don
Tom
ten
them
approx. e
approx. ie

mnka, ksinwka
znb, knpiel
roka, pioq
zoby, topy
ido, dajo
sio, imio

ci, si, zi, dzi plus following vowel –
i only softens preceding consonant:
pocing, siano, ziarno, dziadek
[pochong, shano, zeearno, jadek]

1

Alphabet;
pronunciation;
stress

Consonants – as in English except
w
l
ł
j
ch
s, ni
c
q, ci
cz
ck

[as in]
van
last
full or w
yes
hat
onion
cats
cheese
chair
tsk

wino, kawa
lampa, ból
mały, Wisła
jesies, jajko
chleb, chory
Gdassk, nikt
noc, cytryna
ciemno, mieq
czas, wieczór
dziecko, grecki

u, si
sz
szcz
uq, uci
dz [not dzi]
dv, dzi
dw
v, zi
w, rz

[as in]
sheet
show
fresh
cheddar
Finnish
cheese
goods
jeans
jam
Rhodesia
measure

uroda, siedem
szynka, grosz
deszcz,
szczoucie
szeuq,
dwieucie
dzwon, bardzo
dvwig, godzina
dwem, dwinsy
vle, zielony
rówa, rzeka

Double vowels are said separately:
Haiti, kakao, pauza, teatr, kofeina, Teodor, muzeum, poeta, toaleta,
choinka, poufny, statua, duet, truizm, uosobid
Colloquially, ł is lost between consonants and at word end: jabłko, pomysł.
dw is rare, existing mostly in foreign words.
Soft consonants q, ci, s, ni, u, si, v, zi, have no direct equivalent; they are
softer than the nearest English sound.
Two identical consonants together are said separately: An-na, lek-ki.
Knowing the following rules will help you to understand spoken and
written Polish.

Voicing and devoicing of consonants
1 A voiced consonant is pronounced as its unvoiced equivalent:
(a) At the end of a word
(b) If it stands before or after an unvoiced consonant (which may be
in another word). Most often occurs with b, d, w, z.

2

Voiced

Unvoiced

Examples
chleb [hlep]
naród [naroot]
wódka [vootka]
Bóg [book]
krew [kref]
wtorek [ftorek]
wóz [voos]
wiev [vyesh]
wódz [voots]
chodv [hochsh]
tew [tesh]
bridw [brich]

b
d

→
→

p
t

g
w

→
→

k
f

z
v
dz
dv
w, rz
dw

→
→
→
→
→
→

s
u
c
q
sz
cz

babka [bapka]
od Tomka [ot Tomka]

Alphabet;
pronunciation;
stress

uwioto [shfyento]
z Piotrem [s Pyotrem]
buvka [booshka]
idvcie [eechche]
lekarz [lekash]

2 These unvoiced consonants are voiced when in front of voiced consonants
except w and rz:
Unvoiced
→
→
→

u
cz
k

Voiced

Examples

v
dw
g

prouba [proiba]
liczba [lidjba]
takwe [tagje]

Vowel and consonant changes
1 There are two vowel pairs – ó and o; and n and o. These vowels often
swap depending on the noun ending. An e is often lost or gained before
the final consonant. These changes are pointed out in the text.
Add ending:
Main vowel ó → o; main vowel n → o; e is lost
róg – rogi
znb – zoby
dzwonek – dzwonki
Lose ending:
Main vowel o → ó; main vowel o → n; e is gained
droga – dróg
uwioto – uwint
matka – matek
2 Consonant changes occur when ending e is added, mainly in the dative
and locative cases. The vowels often change as above. Also, main vowel
a may become e.
miasto – mieucie uwiatło – uwietle
3 Vowel i softens the preceding consonant. So, hard consonants c, n, s, z +
i sound just like soft consonants q, s, u and v.

3

Alphabet;
pronunciation;
stress

If, when adding endings, we place an i after a consonant with ´ accent, the
consonant loses its accent because the i performs the required softening.
Thus, Polish does not have the combinations qi, si, ui, uqi, dvi or vi. This is
most clearly seen in plurals:
Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

miłouq (love)
wieu (village)
łódv (boat)

miłouci
wsie
łodzie

gouq (guest)
goucie
kos (horse)
konie
artysta (artist) artyuci

An i, placed after a consonant without ´ accent, softens the consonant
which, in turn, softens the preceding consonant if that can be softened by
the addition of an ´ accent. The softening effect continues backwards
through the word until we reach a vowel, or a consonant which cannot
take an ´ accent. This is best seen in adverbs made from adjectives, and in
the comparative of adjectives and adverbs:
mowczyzna (man)

mowczyvni (men)

wczesny (early–adj.) wczeunie (early–adv.)
ciasny (tight)
ciauniejszy (tighter)
jasno (brightly)
jauniej (more brightly)

n becomes ni, so z
becomes v
n becomes ni, so s
becomes u

Stress
1 We usually stress the second last syllable. Stress often moves to another
part of the word when endings are added:
matka telefon adres rower but na rowerze, z rowerami
2 In most words ending in -ia or -io, the i is pronounced as ‘y’, causing
the -ia or -io to become one syllable ya or yo. So, we stress the syllable
before the -ia or -io:
suknia geografia radio
But, in words ending in -sia, -cia, -zia, -dzia the i softens the preceding
letter. So, the group is pronounced as ua, qa, va, dva and we stress the
preceding syllable:
mamusia Zosia babcia buzia Magdzia

4

3 We stress the third last syllable in:
(a) Greek and Latin words: gramatyka, botanika.
(b) The four numbers: czterysta, siedemset, osiemset, dziewioqset. Sta
and set are simply tagged on.
(c) Past tense verbs in the we and you (plural) parts: byliumy, czytaliucie,
byłyumy, czytałyucie. This is because the ending itself has two
syllables.

Alphabet;
pronunciation;
stress

4 Prepositional phrases are treated as one unit. If a monosyllabic preposition, e.g. dla, u, is followed by a monosyllabic pronoun, e.g. nas,
mnie, the stress is on the preposition:
dla nas u mnie za nim [for us, at my house, after him]
In monosyllabic prepositions an e is often added to aid pronunciation
of a difficult consonant group, e.g. bez + e = beze. To some extent, this
is a matter of personal preference. In this case, the stress is normally
on the e:
beze mnie

przede mnn [without me, before me]

Normal stress may be retained if the preposition with the extra e stands
before a noun:
przede wszystkim [above all/before everything]
5 Nie and its verb are treated as one unit. If the verb has one syllable,
the stress is on nie:
nie mam

nie był

nie idv

If the verb has more than one syllable, the stress is as normal:
nie mamy

nie była

nie idziemy

5

UNIT 1
Noun genders; adjective agreement;
personal pronouns; byq; address forms

Polish has three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. Each noun has
a gender. All male persons are masculine; female persons are feminine.
The gender of all other nouns, with a few exceptions, is governed by
their endings.
Polish is an inflected language. Nouns, pronouns and adjectives change
their endings to show their relationship to other words in the sentence
(i.e. their case). So, Polish does not need the articles a/an/the or some/any.
Unless needed for clarity, my, your, his, etc. are usually omitted too.
Mam syna. Syn jest chory.
Samochód jest drogi.
Gdzie sn dzieci?
Czy masz pienindze?

I have a son. My son is ill.
A/the/my etc. car is expensive.
Where are the/my etc. children?
Do you have the/some/any money?

Nominative (subject) case of nouns
The subject of a sentence stands in the nominative case. Dictionaries, and
the vocabulary in this book, list nouns, pronouns and adjectives in their
nominative case form.
In Polish, after the verbs ‘be’ and ‘become’, a noun (and any associated
adjective), stands in the instrumental case (Unit 28). So:
We (nom.) are tired (nom.).
but I (nom.) am a good student (instr.).
Jack (nom.) has become a doctor (instr.).

Masculine nouns in the nominative singular
These have no ending. Their stems end in a consonant, e.g. stół, kot, pokój,
chłopiec (table, cat, room, boy).
6

A few nouns referring to males end in -a, e.g. kolega, dentysta,
mowczyzna (friend, dentist, man). -a is a feminine ending. Such nouns
behave as feminine in the singular but as masculine in the plural.

1
Genders;
adjective
agreement;
byq

Feminine nouns in the nominative singular
These have the ending -a, e.g. kobieta, ulica, Polska (woman, street, Poland).
Very few have the ending -i, e.g. pani, gospodyni (lady, landlady).
Exceptions: Some feminine nouns end in a consonant, e.g. noc, czouq,
jesies, wieu, mysz (night, part, autumn, village, mouse). Abstract nouns
ending in -uq are feminine, e.g. miłouq, ciekawouq (love, curiosity).

Neuter nouns in the nominative singular
The following endings occur:
-o
-e
-io
-o
-um

okno, dziecko (window, child)
wycie, morze (life, sea)
imio, szczenio (name, pup)
zwierzo, niemowlo (animal, baby)
muzeum, gimnazjum (museum, academy). These never change
in the singular.

Nouns in -io and -o do not show their stems in the nominative. For example,
the stem of imio is imien- (sing.) and imion- (pl.); the stem of zwierzo is
zwierzoc- (sing.) and zwierzot- (pl.).

Nominative case (singular) of adjectives
An adjective qualifies a noun or pronoun, and agrees in gender, number
and case with it. Adjectives of nationality are not capitalised. Adjectives
precede the noun if they refer to an incidental feature of it. They follow
the noun when referring to an intrinsic feature.
Mamy biały samochód.
We have a white car. [Not all cars are white]
Jozyk polski jest trudny.
Polish is difficult. [Only one Polish language exists]

7

1

Most adjectives end in -y, -a, -e in the nominative singular.

Genders;
adjective
agreement;
byq

Masculine -y

Feminine -a

Neuter -e

duwy
mały
dobry
zły

duwa
mała
dobra
zła

duwe
małe
dobre
złe

dobry student
a/the good student

mała dziewczynka
a/the little girl

duWe okno
a/the big window

big
little
good
bad

Some adjectives have a k or g in the nominative singular. k/g never stand
before y or e, except in foreign words (e.g. kelner, geologia). So, the -y and
-e endings become -i and -ie.
Masculine -i

Feminine -a

Neuter -ie

wysoki
niski
polski
długi
drogi
drugi

wysoka
niska
polska
długa
droga
druga

wysokie
niskie
polskie
długie
drogie
drugie

wysoki most
a/the high bridge

polska pani
a/the Polish lady

długie pole
a/the long field

tall, high
short, low
Polish
long
beloved, expensive
second

A few adjectives end in -ci, -pi or -ni. Here, all genders have an -i in the
nominative singular.
Masculine -i

Feminine -ia

Neuter -ie

głupi
tani
trzeci
ostatni
uredni

głupia
tania
trzecia
ostatnia
urednia

głupie
tanie
trzecie
ostatnie
urednie

trzeci dzies
the third day

głupia kobieta
a/the stupid woman

tanie mioso
cheap meat

stupid
cheap
third
last
medium

Adjectives used predicatively (i.e. not in front of a noun) behave in the
same way:
8

Płaszcz jest biały. Ksinwka jest tania. Miasto jest małe.
The coat is white. The book is cheap. The town is small.

Personal pronouns in the nominative case
These are: I
ja

you (sing.) he/she/it
ty
on/ona/ono

we
my

you (pl.) they
wy
oni/one

1
Genders;
adjective
agreement;
byq

Use oni with masc. nouns (or masc. and fem. mixed), one with fem. nouns
(or fem. and neut. mixed).
Ja, ty, my and wy can usually be omitted in all tenses because the verb
itself makes it clear who the subject is, e.g. jem (I eat) cannot be confused
with jesz, jemy or jecie [you (sing.)/we/you (pl.). eat.] On/ona/ono and
oni/one can be omitted only if the subject has already been mentioned or
if the verb is in the past tense (all parts) because the verb ending in the
past tense identifies the subject. For example, if the subject is unknown,
je could mean ‘he eats’ or ‘she eats’ so you need to say on je and ona je.
In the past tense jadł (he ate) and jadła (she ate) cannot be confused so
we can omit the pronoun.

The verb byQ (to be) (Often omitted in short
questions/answers)
Note that, in all verbs, the word ‘to’ is contained within the infinitive.
ja
ty

jestem
jesteu

on/ona/ono

jest

Kasia jest mała.
Jestem chory.
Drzewa sN piokne.
Kto to [jest]? To ja.

I am
you are
(sing.)
he/she/it is

my
wy
oni/one

jesteumy we are
jesteucie you are
(pl.)
sn
they are

Kate is little.
I am ill.
The trees are lovely.
Who’s that? It is I.

Polite forms of address
The singular forms pan (to one man) and pani (to one lady) use the
on /ona part of all verbs:
Pan jest chory?/Pani jest chora? Are you ill?
The plural forms panowie (to several men), panie (to several ladies) and
passtwo (to mixed gender company) use the oni /one form of all verbs:
Panowie/Passtwo sn głodni?
Are you hungry?

Panie sn miłe.
You are kind.

9

1

What like?

Genders;
adjective
agreement;
byq

To ask what something/someone is like, use:
Masculine jaki?

Feminine jaka?

Neuter jakie?

Jaki jest dom?
What’s the house like?

Jaka jest pani?
What’s the lady like?

Jakie jest dziecko?
What’s the child like?

Exercise 1
Correct any adjective which does not agree correctly with its noun.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

młoda kobieta
pibkny twarz
małe dziecko
dobre kawiarnia
dobry rzecz
małe okno
stary imib
pibkna zwierzb

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

młoda pani
pibkna wieh
stara dentysta
małe zdjbcie
stare muzeum
małe miasto
młody chłopiec
pibkny noc

Exercise 2
In Col. A, link each adjective with the most suitable noun in Col. B.
Complete the question in Col. C, then answer it in Col. D.
A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10

B
szeroka
trudna
małe
smaczne
wysoki
zimna
miła
dujy
słoneczny

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)

ciasto
zwierzb
pan
pani
dzief
sklep
droga
noc
praca

C
Jak_
Jak_
Jak_
Jak_
Jak_
Jak_
Jaka
Jak_
Jak_

jest
jest
jest
jest
jest
jest
jest
jest
jest

ciasto?
zwierzb?
pan?
pani?
dzief?
sklep?
droga?
noc?
praca?

D

1

Ciasto jest __________
Zwierzb jest __________
Pan jest __________
Pani jest __________
Dzief jest __________
Sklep jest __________
Droga jest szeroka.
Noc jest __________
Praca jest __________

Genders;
adjective
agreement;
byq

Exercise 3
Use jest (is) to make sentences. Replace the noun with the pronoun on,
ona or ono:
Example: pani (pibkny)
1
2
3
4

Ona jest piBkna.

blok (wysoki)
miasto (stary)
autor (znany)
dziewczynka (ładny)

5
6
7
8

mysz (biały)
kraj (dujy)
dziecko (smutny)
mbjczyzna (inteligentny)

Exercise 4
Find two adjectives which fit best in front of each noun, e.g. małe głupie dziecko
małe duwy
stary słodkie młoda czerwony
ładna zimowa
cicha polska stara wesoły drogie warszawskie głupie pyszne
1 samochód
2 pan

3 mieszkanie
4 ciasto

5 piehf
6 noc

7 dziewczyna
8 dziecko

Exercise 5
What are these girls saying about themselves? Follow the example.
Marysia – chudy, wysoki Jestem chuda i (and) wysoka.
1 Ola – młody, madry
2 Marta – biedny, głupi
3 Kasia – niski, pibkny

4 Julka – miły, wesoły
5 Anka – bogaty, inteligentny
6 Anna – głodny, zmbczony

11

UNIT 2
Nouns and adjectives in the plural

Masculine nouns (including animals but not men)
Notice how the last vowel ó becomes o and the last vowel n becomes o.
An e before the last consonant is usually lost.

12

Ending

When used

Examples

y

After hard consonant
except k, g.

dom: domy kot: koty
stół: stoły sklep: sklepy
zab: zbby kohciół: kohcioły
samochód: samochody

i

After k, g.

bank: banki ptak: ptaki
dzwonek: dzwonki
róg: rogi pociag: pociagi

e

After j, l.

kraj: kraje pokój: pokoje
parasol: parasole
hotel: hotele szpital: szpitale

e

After c, cz, sz, rz, w, dw, dz.

pałac: pałace tysiac: tysiace
pieniadz: pieniadze
grosz: grosze nój: noje
miesiac: miesiace
talerz: talerze klucz: klucze

ie

After ´ accent
(accent lost, i added).

kof: konie ogief: ognie
tydzief: tygodnie lihd: lihcie
niediwiedi: niediwiedzie

ie

In a few nouns
ending in -b, -p.

gołab: gołbbie

Example

Singular

Plural

KoUciół jest cudowny.
The church is magnificent.

KoUcioły sn cudowne.
The churches are magnificent.

Hotel jest drogi.
The hotel is expensive.

Hotele sn drogie.
Hotels are expensive.

karp: karpie

2

Feminine nouns

Nouns and
adjectives in
the plural

Ending

When used

Examples

y

After hard stem
(except k, g) + -a.

kobieta: kobiety szkoła: szkoły
gwiazda: gwiazdy ryba: ryby
siostra: siostry kiełbasa: kiełbasy

i

After k, g stem + -a.

matka: matki córka: córki
droga: drogi Polka: Polki
figa: figi But: rbka: rbce

i

Nouns in -uq, and some in
-q, -s, -dv (accent lost).

miłohd: miłohci
opowiehd: opowiehci nid: nici
piehf: piehni przyjaif: przyjaini

i

Some nouns in -l, -w.

myhl: myhli brew: brwi
But: choragiew: choragwie

e

After j, l, often followed by -a.

lekcja: lekcje kolej: koleje
kapiel: kapiele chwila: chwile
aleja: aleje sala: sale

e

After consonant + -i
(usually followed by -a).

babcia: babcie pani: panie
kuchnia: kuchnie
historia: historie
gospodyni: gospodynie

e

After c, ca, cza, rz, rza,
sza, w, wa, dw.

noc: noce ulica: ulice
tbcza: tbcze burza: burze
wieja: wieje podrój: podróje
owca: owce rója: róje
grusza: grusze

y

Nouns in -cz, -sz.

rzecz: rzeczy

ie

After ´ accent (accent
lost, i added). Vowels may
change from ó to o, from
n to o. An e before last
consonant may be lost.

jabłof: jabłonie łódi: łodzie
gałai: gałbzie wieh: wsie

Example

Singular

Plural

Lekcja jest łatwa.
The lesson is easy.

Lekcje sn łatwe.
The lessons are easy.

Kiełbasa jest dobra.
The sausage is good.

Kiełbasy sn dobre.
The sausages are good.

mysz: myszy

13

2

Neuter nouns

Nouns and
adjectives in
the plural

Ending

When used

Examples

a

Nouns in -o, -e,
-ie, -um.

jabłko: jabłka morze: morza
krzesło: krzesła pole: pola
zdjbcie: zdjbcia muzeum: muzea

iona

Most nouns in -io
extend -io to -iona.

imib: imiona ramib: ramiona
But: jagnib: jagnibta
irebib: irebibta prosib: prosibta

ota

Nouns in -o alone
extend -o to -ota.

kurczb: kurczbta pisklb: pisklbta
zwierzb: zwierzbta
dziewczb: dziewczbta
niemowlb: niemowlbta

Example

Singular

Plural

NiemowlO jest głodne.
The baby is hungry.

NiemowlOta sn głodne.
The babies are hungry.

To jest ładne krzesło.
That’s a nice chair.

To sn ładne krzesła.
These are nice chairs.

Zbych to polskie imiO.
Zbych is a Polish name.

Polskie imiona sn trudne.
Polish names are difficult.

Nouns existing only in the plural
These are items usually consisting of two or more parts:
sanie, sanki
usta
skrzypce
spodnie
rajstopy
kajdany
finanse
drowdwe
nowyce/nowyczki
schody
drzwi
wrote
okulary

14

sleigh
lips
violin
trousers
tights
handcuffs
finances
yeast
scissors
stairs
door
gate
spectacles

manatki
organy
dzieje
plecy
nosze
urodziny
imieniny
chrzciny
blivniota
rodzice
grabie
wakacje/ferie/
wczasy

belongings
organ
history
back
stretcher
birthday
name day
christening
twins
parents
rake
holiday(s)

Many towns, countries and mountain ranges are plural: Kielce, Katowice,
Suwałki, Niemcy, Włochy, Wogry, Tatry, Alpy.

2

Adjectives
The nominative plural of adjectives referring to masculine objects and
animals (but not to men), and to all feminine and neuter nouns is exactly
as the nominative neuter singular, i.e.
Adjective ending
(Nom. neut. sing.)
-e
duje okno

-ie
głupie dziecko

Nouns and
adjectives in
the plural

Example
(Nom. plural, all genders)
małe domy (masc.)
młode kobiety (fem.)
duwe okna (neut.)

small houses
young women
big windows

niskie stołe (masc.)
drogie ksinwki (fem.)
głupie dzieci (neut.)

low tables
expensive books
silly children

What like?
To ask what things/people (excluding men) are like, use jakie?
Masculine jakie?

Feminine jakie?

Neuter jakie?

Jakie sn domy?
What are the
houses like?

Jakie sn panie?
What are the
ladies like?

Jakie sn dzieci?
What are the
children like?

Exercise 1
Write each noun in the plural. Does it end in i, y, or a?
ptak, okno, kwiat, dziewczyna, muzeum, numer, pole, telefon,
droga, morze, kobieta, sklep, siostra, zdjbcie, pociag, szkoła,
jabłko, kolejanka, mieszkanie, sasiadka

15

2

Exercise 2

Nouns and
adjectives in
the plural

Write the plurals of these feminine nouns. Then answer the question, using
the adjective which fits best in its correct plural form.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

róJa
ulica
aleja
owca
kuchnia
lekcja
sala
babcia

róJe
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________

Jakie sa róje? Róje sa Jółte.
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________

waski
miły
biały
szeroki
trudny
zajbty
Jółty
ciepły

Exercise 3
Put these phrases into Polish. Choose the most suitable of these adjectives:
niebieskie smaczne piokne małe smutne ciemne duwe krótkie polskie
długie kolorowe wygodne
1
2
3
4
5
6

big hats
Polish palaces
colourful umbrellas
comfortable hotels
pretty countries
dark nights

7
8
9
10
11
12

tasty fruits
blue plates
long months
small keys
sad faces
short journeys

Exercise 4
Write the plural of each noun. Does it end in i or ie?
1
2
3
4
5
6

16

kof (m.)
miłohd (f.)
jabłof (f.)
lihd (m.)
nid (f.)
piehf (f.)

7
8
9
10
11
12

opowiehd (f.)
ogief (m.)
tydzief (m.)
wieh (f.)
gałai (f.)
łódi (f.)

2

Exercise 5
Complete the sentences, then rewrite them as negative opposites using
nie (not).
Example:
Spodnie sa czyste
(The trousers are clean.)
1
2
3
4

Nouns and
adjectives in
the plural

One nie sa brudne.
(They are not dirty.)

Drzwi sa _________ (open).
Skrzypce sa _________ (expensive).
Wakacje sa _________ (short).
Organy sa _________ (new).

Exercise 6
Insert the plural of the noun, then translate the sentence.
1
2
3
4
5

niemowlb
imib
zwierzb
dziewczb
kurczb

_________ The babies are tired.
_________ Polish names are difficult.
_________ The animals are friendly.
_________ English girls are pretty.
_________ Little chicks are yellow.

17

UNIT 3
Plural of ‘men’ nouns and adjectives

Plural of nouns
The nominative plural ending for ‘men’ nouns is officially -i. However,
because it is decided by the last consonant of the singular, more plurals
actually end in -e, -y and -owie. An e before the last consonant is usually
lost in the plural, e.g. dziadek: dziadkowie. The endings -i and -y cause
consonant changes to the plural noun (see table following). This aids
pronunciation.

18

Ending

When used

Examples

i

Nouns ending in hard
consonant other than k, g,
r, with/without -a.

Francuz: Francuzi
mbjczyzna: mbjczyini
chłop: chłopi

i

Note: In nouns ending in
t, st, ch, d and ł, the ‘i’
softens the final consonant
to ci, uci, si, dzi and li.

See 4–8 in table below.

owie

Titles, jobs, family
members, a few
nationalities, surnames
(except in -ski, -cki, -dzki).

pan: panowie syn: synowie
maj: mbjowie Belg: Belgowie
profesor: profesorowie
But: brat: bracia ksiadz: ksibja

iowie

Note: After ´ accent,
ending is -iowie.

uczef: uczniowie
wibzief: wibiniowie
But: gohd: gohcie

ie

Nationals in -in drop the
ending.

Rosjanin: Rosjanie
Amerykanin: Amerykanie

e

After rz, sz, cz, j, l and
´ accent.

lekarz: lekarze złodziej: złodzieje
towarzysz: towarzysze
słuchacz: słuchacze
nauczyciel: nauczyciele
góral: górale But: król: królowie

Ending

When used

Examples

y

After k, g, r.

Final k, g, r change. See 1–3 in
table below. Note: człowiek: ludzie

y

After c, ca, iec, niec.
Ending iec shortens
to cy; niec to scy.

kierowca: kierowcy
chłopiec: chłopcy
sprzedawca: sprzedawcy
Niemiec: Niemcy
mieszkaniec: mieszkafcy

Example

Singular

Plural

Lekarz jest dobry.
The doctor is good.

Lekarze sn dobrzy.
The doctors are good.

Amerykanin jest bogaty.
The American is rich.

Amerykanie sn bogaci.
(The) Americans are rich.

To jest polski uczeS.
This is a Polish student.

To sn polscy uczniowie.
These are Polish students.

3
Plural
of ‘men’
nouns and
adjectives

Consonant changes caused by plural ending -i and -y
Original
consonant

Consonant +
ending =

Examples

1 k

cy

2 g
3 r

dzy
rzy

4 t

ci

5 st

uci

6 ch
7 d
8 ł

si
dzi
li

Polak: Polacy Chifczyk: Chifczycy
Anglik: Anglicy kaleka: kalecy
Norweg: Norwedzy kolega: koledzy
injynier: injynierzy kelner: kelnerzy
doktor: doktorzy
student: studenci architekt: architekci
poeta: poeci
dentysta: dentyhci specjalista: specjalihci
turysta: turyhci
Czech: Czesi Włoch: Włosi
sasiad: sasiedzi Szwed: Szwedzi
diabeł: diabli

Plural of ‘men’ adjectives
The nominative plural of adjectives referring to men, or to mixed male/
female company, ends in -i (-y after k and g). The consonant changes below
also occur. Ending -oni changes to -eni.

19

3
Plural
of ‘men’
nouns and
adjectives

Note that, in ‘men’ nouns, the nominative singular and plural of adjectives
in -ni and -pi therefore become identical, e.g. głupi syn/synowie (stupid
son/sons); ostatni chłopiec/chłopcy (last boy/boys)
Plural change

Non-men

Men

de : dzi
łe : li
złe : vli
ne : ni

młode
miłe, małe, wesołe
złe, byłe
biedne, smutne zadowolone
zmbczone
polskie, wysokie brzydkie,
bliskie
dobre, stare
zajbte, bogate
pierwsze, lepsze
duje
gotowe, ciekawe
drogie, ubogie

młodzi
mili, mali, weseli
ili, byli
biedni, smutni zadowoleni
zmbczeni
polscy, wysocy brzydcy,
bliscy
dobrzy, starzy
zajbci, bogaci
pierwsi, lepsi
duzi
gotowi, ciekawi
drodzy, ubodzy

kie : cy
re : rzy
te : ci
sze : si
we : zi
we : wi
gie : dzy

Exercise 1
Put these (a) occupations and (b) family members into the plural
(a) malarz, poeta, fryzjer, kierowca, ogrodnik, specjalista
(b) syn, brat, ojciec, wujek, chłopiec, kolega

Exercise 2
(a) Write the correct form of the adjective for each of these nouns:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

20

Dentyhci
Panie
Angielki
Dziadkowie
Nauczyciele
Nauczycielki
Panowie
Turyhci

_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________

(biedny).
(chory).
(szczbhliwy).
(zmbczony).
(dobry).
(zajbty).
(smutny).
(głodny).

(b) Put in the correct form of the given adjective.
9
10
11
12

Matka i dziecko sa
Pan i pani sa
Tadeusz i Maria sa
Teresa i Anna sa

_________
_________
_________
_________

3
Plural
of ‘men’
nouns and
adjectives

(satisfied).
(old).
(young).
(rich).

(c) In (a) and (b) above, replace the subjects with oni or one (they) as
required.

Exercise 3
Select the most suitable adjective for each noun (check the gender of the
noun first).
1
2
3
4
5

dziewczynki
lekarze
panowie
studenci
dziadkowie

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

starzy
głupie
złe
wysokie
biedne

6
7
8
9
10

lekarki
babcie
chłopcy
panie
studentki

(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

wysocy
ili
stare
biedni
głupi

Exercise 4
(a) Change these adjectives of nationality to agree with the noun lekarze
(doctors).
1 polski
2 rosyjski
3 szkocki

4 norweski
5 angielski
6 niemiecki

7 włoski
8 japofski
9 belgijski

10 francuski
11 grecki
12 hiszpafski

(b) Can you link them to their cities?
(a) Berlin
(b) Paryj
(c) Warszawa

(d) Rzym
(e) Tokio
(f) Moskwa

(g) Londyn
(h) Oslo
(i) Ateny

(j) Madryt
(k) Edynburg
(l) Bruksela
21

3

Exercise 5

Plural
of ‘men’
nouns and
adjectives

Select the correct form of the verb for these nouns or pronouns.

1
2
3
4

22

(a) jestem

(b) jest

my
matka
studenci
ona

5
6
7
8

Piotr
wy
oni
córki

(c) jesteHmy
9
10
11
12

(d) jesteHcie

ja
Magdalena
dzieci
on

(e) sA

13 ludzie
14 one
15 samochód

UNIT 4
Direct object (feminine and neuter)

The direct object (noun or pronoun) of a verb stands in the accusative
case. Remnants of the accusative case remain in English pronouns, e.g.
I love him. He saw me.

Feminine nouns and adjectives
In the accusative singular, nouns ending in a consonant do not change, e.g.
rzecz, podróJ, noc, miłoHD, twarz, kolej. In the accusative plural, all nouns
and adjectives are the same as the nominative plural.
Ending

When used

Examples

Nouns (singular)
o
Nouns in -a change -a to -o.

o

Nouns in -i add -o.

Adjectives (singular)
n
All adjectives

matka: matkb Irena: Irenb
kobieta: kobietb babcia: babcib
szkoła: szkołb Polska: Polskb
gospodyni: gospodynib
But: pani: pania
duja: duja pibkna: pibkna
tania: tania głupia: głupia
polska: polska

Nominative

Accusative

Babcia jest mNdra.
Grandmother is clever.

Tomek ma mNdrN babciO.
Tom has a clever grandmother.

Torba jest duWa i tania.
Mam duWN taniN torbO.
The bag is big and cheap. I have a big cheap bag.
To sn polskie ksiNWki.
These are Polish books.

Mamy polskie ksiNWki.
We have (some) Polish books.

23

4

Neuter nouns and adjectives

Direct object
(feminine,
neuter)

The accusative singular and plural is the same as the nominative.
Nominative

Accusative

Drzewo jest małe, ale piOkne.
The tree is small but lovely.

Mamy małe, ale piOkne drzewo.
We have a small but lovely tree.

DuWe mieszkania sn drogie.
Big flats are expensive.

Oni majn duWe i drogie mieszkania.
They have big expensive flats.

The verb mieQ (to have)
ja
ty

mam
masz

on/ona/ono

ma

I have
you have
(sing.)
he/she/it has

my
wy
oni/one

mamy we have
macie you have
(pl.)
majn they have

Use oni with masc. nouns (or masc. and fem. mixed), one with fem. nouns
(or fem. and neut. mixed).
Kasia ma zabawko.
Mamy piokny ogród.
Chłopcy majN rowery.
Mam córko.

Kate has a toy.
We have a nice garden.
The boys have bikes.
I have a daughter.

Exercise 1
Write the correct form of the verb mieD for these nouns and pronouns.
1
2
3
4
5
6

24

ojciec
dzieci
pies
my
oni
matka

7
8
9
10
11
12

wy
one
ty
koledzy
ja
kot

13
14
15
16
17
18

panie
ona
panowie
pani
on
studentki

4

Exercise 2
Rewrite these sentences using the correct direct object forms of the adjective and noun.

Direct object
(feminine,
neuter)

Example: Dziecko ma (matka, piBkny). Dziecko ma piBknA matkB.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Oni maja ___________________
Anna ma ___________________
Wy macie ___________________
Pani ma ___________________
Ty masz ___________________
Ogród ma ___________________
Miasto ma ___________________
Ja mam ___________________

(jajko, czekoladowy)
(ksiajka, polski)
(nazwisko, trudny)
(córka, mały)
(suknia, zielony)
(drzewo, wysoki)
(rzeka, szeroki)
(imib, angielski)

Exercise 3
Put the italicised words into the plural.
1
2
3
4

Dom ma białe okno.
My mamy smacznA kiełbasB.
Ja mam dobrA siostrB.
Miasto ma wAskA ulicB.

5
6
7
8

Oni maja duJe pole.
Dzieci maja trudnA lekcjB.
Wy macie stare mieszkanie.
Matka ma dobre dziecko.

Exercise 4
Insert the correct form of the given adjective. Then, make the subject of
the first sentence act as the object of the second sentence.
Example:
Gazeta jest interesujAca (interesting). Paweł ma interesujAcA gazetB.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Masło jest _________ (fresh).
Ciocia jest _________ (nice).
Mleko jest _________ (cheap).
ĩona jest _________ (old).
Mibso jest _________ (expensive).
Nauczycielki sa _________ (young).
Suknie sa _________ (pink).

Wy macie _________.
Ja mam _________.
Sklep ma _________.
Marek ma _________.
Supermarket ma ________.
Bracia maja _________.
Dziewczbta maja ________.
25

UNIT 5
Verbs with present tense -am, -a, -ajn

A conjugation is a group of verbs which form their tenses identically or
similarly. In Polish, the conjugation of a verb is decided, not by its infinitive
ending, but by the endings in the I, he and they parts of its present tense.
As in all languages, some verbs are irregular.
In the largest Polish conjugation the infinitive ends in -aq. The notable present tense endings are -am, -a, -ajn. Unusually, mieD (Unit 4) also belongs here.
Person

Ending

mieszkaQ (live)

ja
ty
on/ona/ono
my
wy
oni/one

-am
-asz
-a
-amy
-acie
-ajN

mieszkam
mieszkasz
mieszka
mieszkamy
mieszkacie
mieszkajA

I live, am living, do live

One Polish present tense translates three English present tenses, e.g. live,
am living, do live.
Omit nominative case personal pronouns, unless the meaning is unclear,
e.g. My jemy jabłka (we eat apples) could be heard as Myjemy jabłka (we
wash apples). It is better to say Jemy jabłka (we eat apples) and My myjemy
jabłka (we wash apples).
These useful verbs all behave like mieszkaD:
czytaq
odwiedzaq
zamykaq
pamiotaq
upiewaq

26

to
to
to
to
to

read
visit (person)
close
remember
sing

kochaq
zwiedzaq
otwieraq
witaq
znaq

to
to
to
to
to

love
visit (place)
open
greet
know

‘Look alike’ verbs do not always behave identically; spaD, laD, staD become
HpiB (I sleep), lejB (I pour) and stojB (I stand). Verbs in -owaq, -ywaq, -iwaq,
-awaq are also in a different group (Unit 21).

Exercise 1

5

Put the correct part of the given verb in the gap.

Verbs with
present
tense -am,
-a, -ajn

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

ja _________ (hpiewad)
oni _________ (otwierad)
Kasia _________ (odwiedzad)
on _________ (znad)
ty _________ (pamibtad)
Joanna _________ (hpiewad)
my _________ (witad)
one _________ (kochad)
wy _________ (zwiedzad)
Piotr i Marek _________ (czytad)
siostra _________ (zamykad)
pafstwo Wajda _________ (pamibtad)

Exercise 2
Find the best verb for each sentence.
(a) zwiedzamy
(b) otwierasz
1
2
3
4

(c) kocha
(d) upiewajn

(e) czytajn
(g) zna
(f) zamykam (h) odwiedza

Dziecko _________ matkb.
Maria i Julia _________ ksiajki.
Ty _________ drzwi.
Marysia _________ babcib.

5
6
7
8

Dzieci _________ piehni.
My _________ Polskb.
Ja _________ okno.
On _________ miasto.

Exercise 3
(a) Insert the correct part of the verb and put the direct object (italicised)
into the accusative case.
(b) Then rewrite the sentences in the plural.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Lekarz czytad trudna ksiAJka.
Kolega zwiedzad nowa szkoła.
Ja znad biedna sAsiadka.
Ona pamibtad stara kawiarnia.
Chłopiec kochad piBkna dziewczyna.
Mbjczyzna odwiedzad młoda pani.
Dziecko hpiewad polska pieHF.
Ty witad miła koleJanka.

27

UNIT 6
Direct object of masculine nouns
(accusative case)

Singular nouns (with or without adjectives)
We have seen that the direct object is expressed with the accusative case.
In a singular masculine ‘non-alive’ noun denoting an object or abstract
concept, e.g. dom, ogród, spokój (house, garden, peace) the accusative is
identical to the nominative.

Plural nouns (with or without adjectives)
A direct object which is a plural masculine ‘non-alive’ noun, e.g. domy, or
a masculine ‘non-men’ noun denoting a living creature, e.g. koty, is identical to the nominative plural.
Units 8 and 9 explain the accusative singular of masculine ‘alive’ nouns
denoting male persons or other living creatures, and the accusative plural
of masculine ‘men’ nouns denoting male persons.

Exceptions
For unknown reasons, these groups of ordinary nouns have an accusative
case which ends in -a in the singular and yet is identical to the nominative
case in the plural.
1
2
3
4
5

28

Fruit and vegetables
Vehicles
Units of currency
Games and dances
Cigarettes (& brands)

banan, pomidor
ford, polonez
dolar, funt
tenis, walc
papieros, (camel)

Pomidor (nom.) jest smaczny. but
The tomato is nice.

Jem pomidora.
I am eating a tomato.

Pomidory (nom.) sn smaczne.
The tomatoes are nice.

Jem pomidory.
I eat tomatoes.

and

Non-alive

Alive (non-men)

Alive (men)

Direct object
of masculine
nouns

Singular
Subject

Dom jest duwy.
The house is big.

Kot jest mały.
The cat is small.

Dir. Obj.
(Acc.)

Mamy duwy dom.
We have a big house.

See Unit 8.

6

Lekarz jest dobry.
The doctor is good.

Plural
Subject

Domy sn duwe.
The houses are big.

Koty sn małe.
The cats are small.

Lekarze sn dobrzy.
The doctors are good.

Dir. Obj.
(Acc.)

Mamy duwe domy.
We have big houses.

Mamy małe koty.
We have small cats.

See Unit 9.

An adjective always stands in the same case as the noun to which it
belongs.
Watch Out! If the verb is negative, e.g. I don’t have a cat, the direct
object stands in the genitive case (Unit 22) unless the verb itself is one of
not many which demand use of a different case.

Exercise 1
The italicised noun is the subject of the sentence. Change it into the object
as shown.
Koty sa czarne. Ja . . . (kochad) Ja kocham czarne koty.
1
2
3
4
5

Dom jest dujy i pibkny.
Dobre ołówki sa drogie.
Zamek jest stary.
Białe króliki sa miłe.
To jest hymn narodowy.

Paweł . . . (mied)
Dzieci . . . (mied)
My . . . (zwiedzad)
Dziecko . . . (witad)
Ludzie . . . (hpiewad)

Exercise 2
Which of these singular nouns do not change their form when acting as
the direct object.
1
2
3
4

brat
samochód
rower
pies

5
6
7
8

nauczyciel
stół
paszport
syn

9
10
11
12

talerz
hotel
ojciec
pociag

13 lekarz
14 ser
15 kraj

29

6

Exercise 3

Direct object
of masculine
nouns

Translate into Polish. Use one of the given nouns as the direct object
(italicised).
gazeta
1
2
3
4
5
6

okno

dziecko

zamek

piehf

Zosia is singing a happy song.
Antek knows the old castle.
I am reading a Polish newspaper.
They are visiting the pretty town.
The boy opens the big window.
Granny visits the poor child.

Exercise 4
Translate. The direct object is italicised.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

30

He is closing the big windows.
We love grey rabbits.
Franek remembers the old cars.
We know the new shops.
We are visiting Granny.
They read French books.
She loves the Polish houses.
He visits German towns.

miasto

UNIT 7
Prepositions followed by accusative case

Some Polish verbs are always followed by a preposition and the accusative
case form of nouns and pronouns, e.g. to wait for or to complain about.
Here are some such verbs.
na
czekad
mied czas
narzekad
zapraszad
patrzyd

wait for
have time for
complain about
invite [for/to]
look at

przez
ihd
patrzyd
rozmawiad

go through
look through
speak via

w
grad

play [a game]

za
dzibkowad
thank for
przepraszad apologise for
o
pytad
prosid

ask about
ask for

po
dzwonid
ihd
jechad

ring for
go for/fetch (on foot)
go for/fetch (by car)

To aid pronunciation an e can be added to the prepositions przez and w
before difficult consonant groups.
All the above are -am, -a, -ajA verbs (Unit 5) with the exception of 6,
of which we need only the ‘I’ part in this unit:
dziokowaq: dzibkujb
dzwoniq: dzwonib

iuq: idb
patrzyq: patrzb
jechaq: jadb prosiq: proszb

Nominative

Accusative

kawa (coffee)
obiad (lunch)
dziewczynka (girl)
pienindze (money)
karty (cards)

Mam czas na kawO.
Dziokujo za obiad.
Patrzo na dziewczynkO.
Proszo o pieniNdze.
Grajn w karty.

31

7

Nominative

Accusative

Prepositions
plus
accusative
case

las (forest)
urlop (holiday)
rynek (market place)
korytarz (corridor)
Warszawa (Warsaw)
piłka nowna (football)

Ido przez las.
Jado na urlop.
Ido na rynek.
Ido przez korytarz.
Jado przez WarszawO.
Gramy w piłkO noWnN.

Exercise 1
Answer Yes (Tak) to these questions, using the ‘I’ or ‘we’ form of the verb,
as appropriate.
Masz czas na kawb?
Czekacie na autobus?

Tak, mam czas na kawb.
Tak, czekamy na autobus.

1 Gracie w karty?
2 Pytasz o adres?
3 Zapraszasz na przyjbcie?

4 Narzekacie na dziecko?
5 Pytacie o drogb?
6 Grasz w piłkb nojna?

Exercise 2
Insert the correct form of the verb.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

On _________ (narzekad) na córkb.
Ja _________ (przepraszad) za kłopot.
Chłopcy _________ (narzekad) na pogodb.
Ja _________ (dzibkowad) za wino.
Oni _________ (zapraszad) na herbatb.
Ja _________ (patrzyd) na zwierzb.
Wy _________ (pytad) o nauczycielkb.
Ja _________ (jechad) przez Kraków.

Exercise 3
Example: Marek czeka (czekad) na Annb (Anna).

32

1 My _________ (pytad) o _________ (siostra).
2 Wy _________ (czekad) na _________ (babcia).
3 Marysia _________ (przepraszad) za _________ (spóinienie).

4
5
6
7

Nauczycielka _________ (pytad) o _________ (godzina).
Chłopcy _________ (grad) w _________ (piłka nojna).
Dziewczynka _________ (narzekad) na _________ (matka).
Rodzice _________ (rozmawiad) przez _________ (telefon).

7
Prepositions
plus
accusative
case

Exercise 4
Translate into Polish, selecting the appropriate preposition for ‘for’.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

The boy waits for the train.
Marta apologises for the trouble.
Agata has time for coffee.
I am ringing for a taxi.
I am going for the bread.
I am thanking for lunch.
Tomek invites the girl for a party.
I am asking for money.

Exercise 5
Select the most suitable noun for each gap. (Feminine nouns change in
the accusative case.)
prezent
gazeta
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

spacer
zdjocie taksówka
pienindze Teresa Warszawa

las
okno

Idb po polska _________.
Jadb przez _________.
Dzibkujb za ładny _________.
Patrzb przez duje _________.
Dzwonib po tania _________.
Proszb o _________.
Patrzb na stare _________.
Jadb po _________.
Idb przez zielony _________.
Idb na długi _________.

33

UNIT 8
Direct object (singular) of masculine
‘alive’ nouns

Direct object of most masculine ‘alive’ nouns
We have seen that the direct object is expressed with the accusative
case. The direct object of masculine singular nouns denoting men and
not ending in -a (e.g. syn, dziadek), and of nouns denoting living creatures
(e.g. kot, ptak) ends in -a.
The noun often changes its original ending slightly. An e before the
final consonant is often lost. Vowel n often changes to o, especially in
single-syllable words.
Noun Ending

Becomes

Examples

Consonant other than
those listed below

a

pan: pana brat: brata kelner: kelnera
królik: królika Polak: Polaka
sasiad: sasiada Note: maj: mbja
ksiadz: ksibdza pies: psa

iec/ec

ca

chłopiec: chłopca

niec

sca

siostrzeniec: siostrzefca

ek

ka

dziadek: dziadka

ier (sometimes)

ra

szwagier: szwagra

Soft accent (e.g. s, uq).
Accent lost, -i added.

ia

kof: konia

ojciec: ojca

Janek: Janka
But: injynier: injyniera

gohd: gohcia

Syn [nom.] jest wysoki. Kot [nom.] jest mały.
My son [subject] is tall. The cat [subject] is small.
Mam wysokiego* syna i małego* kota.
I have a tall son [direct object] and a small cat [direct object].

34

Direct object of masculine ‘men’ nouns ending in -a

8

Masculine ‘men’ nouns ending in -a like kolega, artysta, kierowca, behave
as feminine in the singular, so their direct object ends in -o.

Direct object
(sing.) –
masc. ‘alive’
nouns

Mój dobry polski kolega [nom.] jest chory.
My good Polish friend [subject] is ill.
Oni znajn mojego* dobrego* polskiego* kolegO [acc.].
They know my good Polish friend [direct object].
* The accusative (direct object form) of adjectives referring to singular masculine ‘alive’ nouns ends in -ego. It is the same as the genitive case which we meet
in Unit 13.

Exercise 1
Write the direct object form of these nouns:
syn, młodzieniec, malarz, Anglik, dentysta, Tomek, nauczyciel, pies,
kot, sprzedawca, maj, chłopiec, gohd, kolega, wujek, fryzjer, ojciec,
uczef.

Exercise 2
The direct object of kto? (who?) is kogo? (whom?). Ask questions using
‘you’ (singular), and answer using ‘I’, e.g.
Znad, nauczyciel. Kogo znasz? Znam nauczyciela.
1
2
3
4

Brat, kochad.
Dziadek, pamibtad.
Maj, kochad.
Kolega, odwiedzad.

5
6
7
8

Mbjczyzna, znad.
Gohd, witad.
Pies, kochad.
Chłopiec, odwiedzad.

35

8

Exercise 3

Direct object
(sing.) –
masc. ‘alive’
nouns

Rewrite, putting the italicised words into their feminine equivalents, e.g.
Czekamy na ojca. Czekamy na matkB (matka).
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

36

Synowie narzekaja na nauczyciela. ________ narzekaja na ________.
Pan czeka na kolegB. _________ czeka na _________.
Wujek narzeka na syna. _________ narzeka na _________.
Patrzb na brata. Patrzb na _________.
Idb po sAsiada. Idb po _________.
Dzwonib po lekarza. Dzwonib po _________.
Wnuk pyta o dziadka. _________ pyta o _________.
Polacy czekaja na Anglika. _________ czekaja na _________.

UNIT 9
Direct object (plural) of masculine
‘men’ nouns

The direct object (accusative case) of masculine plural nouns denoting
men (e.g. synowie, koledzy) usually ends in -ów, though -i and -y also occur.
The ending is added to the nominative singular (not plural) of the noun.
An e before the final consonant is often lost (dziadek: dziadków). Nouns
ending in -in lose this in the plural (Amerykanin: Amerykanów).
Ending

When used

Examples

ów

Most nouns denoting
males including nouns
ending in -a.

syn: synów ojciec: ojców
Polak: Polaków chłopiec: chłopców
Amerykanin: Amerykanów
kolega: kolegów dentysta: dentystów
But: maj: mbjów brat: braci
ksiadz: ksibjy człowiek: ludzi
kaleka: kalek mbjczyzna: mbjczyzn

iów

After ´ accent except uq.
Accent lost, -i added.

uczef: uczniów

i

After l, j, uq (accent
lost, -i added). j and
i merge to give i.

gohd: gohci nauczyciel: nauczycieli
złodziej: złodziei
But: przyjaciel: przyjaciół

y

After cz, rz, sz.

lekarz: lekarzy słuchacz: słuchaczy
listonosz: listonoszy
jołnierz: jołnierzy

wibzief: wibiniów

Synowie [nom.] sn wysocy. Koty [nom.] sn małe.
My sons [subject] are tall. The cats [subject] are small.
Mam wysokich* synów i małe koty.
I have tall sons [direct object] and small cats [direct object].
* The accusative (direct object form) of adjectives referring to plural ‘men’ nouns ends in
-ich or -ych. It is the same as the genitive case which we meet in Unit 13.

37

9

Exercise 1

Direct object
(pl.) – masc.
‘men’ nouns

Write the direct object case of these nouns (find the nominative singular first):
profesorowie, malarze, Anglicy, koledzy, artyhci, towarzysze,
Rosjanie, jołnierze, nauczyciele, sklepikarze

Exercise 2
Put the given noun into the direct object case, e.g.
Anglicy (I greet). Witam Anglików.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Francuzi
(they [fem.] love)
lekarze
(we know)
Amerykanie (she knows)
bracia
(he has)
nauczyciele (I love)
studenci
(they [masc.] remember)
listonosze
(I remember)
injynierzy
(you [pl.] know)
przyjaciele
(you [sing.] visit)
specjalihci
(we remember)

Exercise 3
Translate into Polish. Use verbs and prepositions from Unit 7.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

38

Wives complain about husbands.
Martha is waiting for a male friend.
I am looking at the dog.
The fathers complain about the boys.
We are waiting for friends.
I’m going for [to fetch] my husband.
The English ladies ask about the guests.
I’m ringing for the doctor.
The little children ask about Grandfather.
The Polish tourists wait for the driver.

UNIT 10
Direct object pronouns; prepositional
pronouns (accusative)

Each subject pronoun (nominative case), e.g. I, he, they, has an equivalent
for each of the grammatical cases in Polish (here me, him, them).

Accusative case pronouns
You know that a noun which is the direct object stands in the accusative
case. We often replace this noun by a direct object pronoun.
Direct object

Direct object pronoun

We eat bread (masc.).
Mary loves Mark (masc. ‘men’).
She greets the aunt (fem.).
He loves the child (neut.).
I eat bananas (masc.).
I know the boys (masc. ‘men’).
You visit the ladies (fem.).
I love children (neut.).

Jemy chleb.
Maria kocha Marka.
Wita ciociO.
Kocha dziecko.
Jem banany.
Znam chłopców.
Odwiedzasz panie.
Kocham dzieci.

Jemy go.
Maria go kocha.
Wita jN.
Kocha je.
Jem je.
Znam ich.
Odwiedzasz je.
Kocham je.

The table of equivalents is:
Singular

Plural

I

you

he

she

it

we

you

they (men)

they (non-men)

Nom.

ja

ty

on

ona

ono

my

wy

oni

one

Acc.

mnie
me

cio
you

go
him

jn
her

je
it

nas
us

was
you

ich
them

je
them

Note: Je means both it and them. It is also the he/she/it part of the verb jeHD (to eat).
Anka je jabłko/gruszki. (Annie eats an apple/the pears). Anka je je. (Annie eats it/them).

39

10
Direct object
pronouns

The pronouns cio and go cannot start a sentence or carry the sentence
stress. In such situations use the emphatic forms, ciebie and jego.
Ciebie Marek kocha (Mark loves you.) not
Jego znam. (I know him.)
not

Cib Marek kocha.
Go znam.

Accusative case prepositional pronouns
A different set of pronouns is used after accusative case prepositions (e.g.
na, do, za). They all begin with ‘n’, a historical remnant (e.g. on + jego =
niego). Only him, her, it and them exist. For other persons, use the accusative forms shown below.
Singular
I
Nom. ja
Acc.

Plural

you

he

she it

ty

on

ona ono my wy

MNIE CIEBIE niego niN nie
me
you
him her it

we

you they (men) they (non-men)
oni

nas was nich
us you them

one
nie
them

Preposition plus noun

Preposition plus pronoun

Czekam na brata.
Narzekam na siostrB.
Dzieci czekaja na przyjaciół.
Marta pyta o dzieci.

Czekam na niego.
Narzekam na niA.
Dzieci czekaja na nich.
Marta pyta o nie.
Ojciec narzeka na mnie.
Kolega pyta o ciebie.

Exercise 1
Write the given word in the direct object case. Then, replace it with a direct
object pronoun.

40

1
2
3
4
5
6

Antoni kocha MartB (Marta). Antoni jA kocha.
Marysia hpiewa (piehf). Marysia _________ hpiewa.
Matka zna (nauczycielka). Matka _________ zna.
Ja mam (ołówek). Ja _________ mam.
My witamy (ciocia). My _________ witamy.
Ojciec otwiera (okna). Ojciec _________ otwiera.

7
8
9
10
11
12

Pani zamyka (drzwi). Pani _________ zamyka.
Ja witam (kolega). Ja _________ witam.
My kochamy (wujek). My _________ kochamy.
Dzieci pamibtaja (dziadek). Dzieci _________ pamibtaja.
Kasia czyta (gazeta). Kasia _________ czyta.
Babcia kocha (dziecko). Babcia _________ kocha.

10
Direct object
pronouns

Exercise 2
Put the correct pronoun in the gap. Use each given pronoun once only.
go
niego
1
2
3
4
5
6

go
niego

jn
nin

je
nie

je
nie

ich
nich

Halina ma siostrb. Ja _________ znam. Pytam o _________.
Barbara zna Andrzeja. Ona _________ zna. Czeka na _________.
Jadwiga ma dzieci. Ja _________ kocham. Pytam o _________.
Tadek ma braci. On ________ nie odwiedza. Narzeka na _________.
Studenci znaja nauczycielki. Oni _________ znaja. Narzekaja na _________.
Marta kocha Łukasza. Ona ________ odwiedza. Pyta o _______.

Exercise 3
Write the correct form of the given pronoun, e.g.
Pamibtasz (ja)? Pamibtasz mnie?
Czekacie na (ona)? Czekacie na niA?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Zapraszam (wy) na koncert.
Paweł narzeka na (oni).
Marysia i Ola czekaja na (on).
Ania pyta o (ona).
Basia odwiedza (ona).
Pan i pani Kwiecief witaja (on).
Feliks zna (my).
Pamibtamy (ty).
Maryla kocha (ja).
Olek zaprasza (ty) na zabawb.

41

10

Exercise 4

Direct object
pronouns

Rewrite in the plural.
1
2
3
4
5

Nauczycielka narzeka na nia.
Chłopiec kocha mnie.
Czekam na ciebie.
Pamibtasz mnie?
Znam go.

6
7
8
9
10

Kolega zaprasza ja.
Kocham ciebie.
Ojciec narzeka na niego.
Pytam o nia.
Zapraszam cib na lody.

Exercise 5
Match one item from Col. 1 with one item from Col. 2 as shown.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

42

Mam duje okna.
Kocham ciocib.
Czytam ksiajkb.
Tadek kocha dziewczynkb.
Matka ma kota.
Maj jest silny.
Piotr ma siostry.
KoleJanka kocha dziecko.
Rodzice znaja dentystb.
Lekarz jest dobry.
Sasiedzi znaja Halinb.
Chłopiec kocha kolegb.

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l

Czekaja na niego.
Czeka na niego.
Idb po niego.
Dzwonib po niego.
Pyta o nie.
Czekam na nia.
Dzibkujb za nia.
Patrzb przez nie.
Pytaja o nia.
Czeka na nie.
Narzeka na niego.
Czeka na nia.

UNIT 11
Possession (singular nouns)

In English we show possession with an apostrophe, e.g. the boy’s book,
our children’s toys, or with of, e.g. the top of the hill. Sometimes we form
a compound noun, e.g. passport number (the number of the passport). In
Polish we show possession with the genitive case.

Genitive case of masculine nouns
1 The genitive singular ending of masculine nouns denoting men and not
ending in -a (e.g. syn, ojciec), and of nouns denoting living creatures
(e.g. kot, ptak), is -a. This is exactly as the accusative case (direct object)
which you met in Unit 8.
Nominative

Direct Object

Genitive

Brat jest miły.
My brother is
pleasant.

Ty znasz brata.
You know my
brother.

Córka brata jest uliczna.
My brother’s
daughter is beautiful.

Dziadek jest stary.
Grandad is old.

Kocham dziadka.
I love Grandad.

ĩona dziadka jest gruba.
Grandad’s wife is fat.

Królik to ładne
zwierzo.
A rabbit is a lovely
animal.

Mam królika.

Ogon królika jest krótki.

I have a rabbit.

My rabbit’s tail is short.

43

11
Possession
(singular
nouns)

2 The genitive singular ending of masculine nouns denoting men and
ending in -a is either -y or -i.
Ending

When used

Examples

y

Nouns not ending in ka, ga.

turysta: turysty
mbjczyzna: mbjczyzny
kierowca: kierowcy

i

Nouns ending in ka, ga.

kolega: kolegi

Example

Nominative

Genitive

MOWczyzna czeka.
The man is waiting.

To jest samochód mOWczyzny.
This is the man’s car.

Kolega ma dom.
My friend has a house.

Dom kolegi jest duwy.
My friend’s house is big.

kaleka: kaleki

3 The genitive singular ending of masculine nouns not denoting men and
animals is officially -u, but some nouns use -a. They tend to fall into the
categories in List A below. Strict rules are impossible but, if in doubt,
write -u. Good dictionaries give the genitive singular. It is best to learn
it along with the noun.

44

Ending

When used

Examples

u

Nouns not in List A.

obiad: obiadu bank: banku
sklep: sklepu dom: domu
pokój: pokoju wiatr: wiatru

a

Nouns in List A. Vowels in last
syllable often change from ó to
o and from n to o especially in
one-syllable nouns. Usually, e
before last consonant is lost.

koszyk: koszyka nój: noja
palec: palca kwiatek: kwiatka
zab: zbba Kraków: Krakowa

Example

Nominative

Genitive

To jest ParyW.
This is Paris.

Koucioły ParyWa sn cudowne.
The churches of Paris are
magnificent.

Hotel jest mały.
The hotel is small.

Znam numer hotelu.
I know the telephone number
of the hotel.

List A – Masculine ‘non-alive’ nouns taking ending -a
in genitive singular
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Fruit and vegetables, banan, pomidor
Vehicles, ford, mercedes (car names have no capitals).
Units of currency, dolar, funt, frank.
Games, brydw, tenis and dances, krakowiak, walc.
Cigarettes, papieros, salem (brand names have no capitals).
Tools/containers, młotek, klucz, ołówek, talerz.
Parts of the body, nos, brzuch.
Most Polish towns, Wrocław, Szczecin.
All months except February [luty]. This was originally a masculine
adjective meaning ‘bleak’ and takes -ego.
10 Units of day, dzies, wieczór. But: The four masculine days (Unit 38)
take -u.
11 Nouns ending in -ek, -ik, -yk, like zegarek, słoik, jozyk. But: Nouns in
-ek derived from verbs take -u (e.g. majntek from verb mieD).

11
Possession
(singular
nouns)

Genitive case of feminine nouns
The ending -y
In the genitive singular, nouns not ending in -ka or -ga usually take the
ending -y, as do nouns ending in the consonants shown below.
Ending

When used

Examples

y

After hard stems (except k/g)
+ -a. Same as nom. plural.

lampa: lampy szkoła: szkoły
kobieta: kobiety siostra: siostry
łza: łzy kiełbasa: kiełbasy

y

After c, ca, cz, cza, sz, sza, rz,
rza, w, wa. Same as gen. plural.

noc: nocy ulica: ulicy
tbcza: tbczy mysz: myszy
twarz: twarzy burza: burzy
rója: rójy grusza: gruszy
rzecz: rzeczy podrój: podrójy

Example

Nominative

Genitive

Siostra jest zmartwiona.
My sister is worried.

Dziecko siostry jest chore.
My sister’s child is ill.

Ulica nie jest długa.
The street is not long.

To jest koniec ulicy.
This is the end of the street.

45

11

The ending -i

Possession
(singular
nouns)

46

In the genitive singular, nouns ending in -ka or -ga take the ending -i, as
do nouns ending in a soft accent, e.g. -s or in -ia. Notice the smaller odd
groups of nouns also.
Ending

When used

Examples

i

After k/g + -a. Same as
nom. plural.

matka: matki
droga: drogi

i

After ´ accent (accent
lost, -i added). Same as
nom. plural unless that
ends in -ie.

piehf: piehni nid: nici pamibd: pamibci
gałai: gałbzi łódi: łodzi miłohd: miłohci
wieh: wsi jesief: jesieni
opowiehd: opowiehci

i

After c, s, z, b, m, n, p,
w + -ia. Also after nouns
in -i. The two i’s merge
into one.

babcia: babci Kasia: Kasi
kuchnia: kuchni Zuzia: Zuzi
pani: pani But: Some foreign nouns in
b, m, n, p, w + -ia use -ii, e.g. Libii,
chemii.

i

After vowel + -j or -ja.
J merges with i.

aleja: alei szyja: szyi nadzieja: nadziei
kolej: kolei jmija: jmii

i

Nouns in -la, -l, -w and
foreign nouns in -ea,
-ua.

cebula: cebuli chwila: chwili
choragiew: choragwi krew: krwi
myhl: myhli sól: soli idea: idei
statua: statui

Example

Nominative

Genitive

Matka kocha dzieci.
The mother loves her
children.

Oczy matki sn zielone.
The mother’s eyes are green.

To jest polska pieUS.
This is a Polish song.

Melodia pieUni jest piokna.
The melody of the song is pretty.

Babcia ma kota.
Granny has a cat.

Kot babci jest biały.
Granny’s cat is white.

córka: córki

The endings -ii and -ji

11

-ii occurs in nouns ending in specific consonants + -ia; -ji occurs in foreign
nouns.

Possession
(singular
nouns)

Ending

When used

Examples

ii

After d, ch, f, g, k, l, r, t + -i
(usually followed by -a).

melodia: melodii Belgia: Belgii
Anglia: Anglii historia: historii
sympatia: sympatii

ji

Foreign words in -cja, -sja,
-zja. J is kept.

telewizja: telewizji lekcja: lekcji
poezja: poezji Francja: Francji
stacja: stacji Szkocja: Szkocji
procesja: procesji

Example

Nominative

Genitive

Lekcja jest trudna.
The lesson is difficult.

Jest koniec lekcji.
It is the end of the lesson.

Anglia to piokny kraj.
England is a lovely country.

Historia Anglii jest trudna.
The history of England is difficult.

Neuter nouns
The genitive singular of neuter nouns ending in -o, -ie or e ends in -a.
Ending

When used

Examples

a

Nouns in -o, -e, -ie. Same as
nom. plural.

okno: okna jabłko: jabłka
krzesło: krzesła morze: morza
mieszkanie: mieszkania

Example

Nominative

Genitive

Miasto jest stare.
The town is old.

Ulice miasta sn wnskie.
The streets of the town are narrow.

Dziecko narzeka na siostro.
The child complains about its
sister.

Siostra dziecka ma zabawko.
The child’s sister has a toy.

47

11
Possession
(singular
nouns)

But nouns ending in -o and -io use -ienia and -ocia in the genitive singular.
Nouns ending in -um do not change.
Ending

When used

Examples

ienia

Most nouns in -io extend
-io to -ienia.

imib: imienia ramib: ramienia
But: jagnib: jagnibcia irebib: irebibcia
prosib: prosibcia (young animals, by
analogy with zwierzB)

ocia

Nouns in -o alone extend
-o to -Ocia.

zwierzb: zwierzbcia
dziewczb: dziewczbcia

Example

Nominative

Genitive

NiemowlO ma zabawki.
The baby has some toys.

Zabawki niemowlOcia sn tanie.
The baby’s toys are cheap.

ProsiO ma siano.
The piglet has some straw.

Siano prosiOcia jest mokre.
The piglet’s straw is wet.

Exercise 1
Write the genitive singular of these masculine nouns.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

kot (cat)
stół (table)
dzban (jug)
samochód (car)
garnek (pot)
baran (sheep)
słoik (jar)
chleb (bread)

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

ser (cheese)
obiad (lunch)
but (shoe)
kalafior (cauliflower)
sklep (shop)
dywan (carpet)
grzyb (mushroom)
ziemniak (potato)

Exercise 2
Rewrite the sentences to express possession as shown.
Brat ma (mied) zielony samochód. Samochód brata jest zielony.

48

1
2
3
4

Siostra _________ (mied) ładny dom.
Dziecko _________ (odwiedzad) stara babcib.
Ojciec _________ (mied) małe pole.
Wujek _________ (kochad) stary rower.

5
6
7
8

Teresa _________ (czytad) trudna ksiajkb.
Kot _________ (mied) hwieje mleko.
Antek _________ (kochad) pibkna dziewczynb.
Kierowca _________ (mied) nowa taksówkb.

11
Possession
(singular
nouns)

Exercise 3
Translate into Polish
1
2
3
4
5

the
the
the
the
the

end of the storm
start of the lesson
end of the avenue
start of the journey
end of the song

6
7
8
9

the
the
the
the

start of the holidays
end of the story
beginning of the melody
end of the autumn

49

UNIT 12
Possession (plural nouns); whose

Masculine nouns
The genitive plural of masculine nouns usually ends in -ów, though -y and
-i also occur. It is made from the genitive singular, so vowel changes which
occurred there (ó to o, n to o, and loss of e before last consonant) recur
here.
You already know the genitive plural of masculine nouns denoting men
(e.g. synowie, lekarze) because it is exactly the same as the accusative
plural (Unit 9).
Ending

When used

Examples

ów

After hard consonant
including k and g, and also
after c.

bank: banków pociag: pociagów
ptak: ptaków koniec: kofców
chłopiec: chłopców pies: psów
syn: synów zegarek: zegarków
zab: zbbów

(Note vowel changes and
loss of e.)

stól: stołów miesiac: miesibcy
tysiac: tysibcy pieniadz: pienibdzy
samochód: samochodów

Nominative

Genitive

To sn ładne domy.
These are nice houses.

Cena domów jest wysoka.
The price of the houses is high.

Example

The ending -y and -i occurs in nouns ending in some consonants, including
accented ones. See overleaf.

50

Ending

When used

Examples

y*

After cz, sz, rz, w, dw.

klucz: kluczy kapelusz: kapeluszy
talerz: talerzy grosz: groszy
lekarz: lekarzy nój: nojy garaj: garajy
płaszcz: płaszczy kosz: koszy

i*

After l, j. J merges
with i.

hotel: hoteli parasol: parasoli pokój: pokoi
nauczyciel: nauczycieli But: kraj: krajów

i

After ´ accent (accent kof: koni łabbdi: łabbdzi lihd: lihci
lost, -i added).
gohd: gohci But: tydzief: tygodni ogief: ogni

12
Possession
(plural
nouns);
whose

* Many alternative forms in -ów occur, e.g. pokojów, hotelów, koszów, garawów.

Example Nominative
Hotele sn nowe.
The hotels are new.

Genitive
Zdjocia hoteli sn ładne.
The photographs of the hotels are nice.

Feminine nouns
Most feminine nouns form their genitive plural by dropping their -a or -i
ending. If the stem has one syllable, especially if it contains o or o, a vowel
change often occurs. If the stem ends in a difficult consonant group an
extra e is added.
Ending

When used

Examples

–

After consonant + a
(except nouns in -cja, -sja,
-zja).

gwiazda: gwiazd ulica: ulic jona: jon
orkiestra: orkiestr kobieta: kobiet
chwila: chwil But: aleja: alei
nadzieja: nadziei

–

Note vowel changes and
addition of e.

droga: dróg głowa: głów szkoła: szkół
siostra: sióstr rbka: rak córka: córek
panna: panien cegła: cegieł łza: łez

–

Nouns in -i, -ia (but not
-nia or foreign nouns in
-ia). -i is lost, accent
added if possible.

gospodyni: gospodyf ziemia: ziem
pani: paf ciocia: ciod babcia: babd

Example

Nominative

Genitive

Kobiety kochajn brata.
The women love their
brother.

Brat kobiet jest miły.
The women’s brother is kind.

Siostry majn rower.
The sisters have a bicycle.

Rower sióstr jest nowy.
The sisters’ bicycle is new.

51

12
Possession
(plural
nouns);
whose

Nouns ending in c, cz, sz, rz, w (noc, twarz, rzecz, mysz, podróJ), in -nia
(kuchnia, suknia) and foreign nouns ending in -cja, -sja, -zja, -ia (stacja,
procesja, poezja, tragedia) are easy. The genitive plural is the same as the
genitive singular (Unit 11).
Therefore, to avoid confusion, alternative ‘no ending’ forms for -nia
nouns now occur (sukien, ksiBgarF, kuchen for sukni, ksiBgarni, kuchni).
Kolor sukni jest piokny could mean ‘The colour of the dress is nice’ or
‘The colour of the dresses is nice’. So, the plural often becomes Kolor
sukien jest piokny.

Neuter nouns
Most neuter nouns form their genitive plural by dropping their -o, -e or
-ie ending. If the stem has one syllable, especially if it contains o or o, a
vowel change often occurs. If the stem ends in a difficult consonant group
(e.g. -jk, -sł, -tr, -tk, -czk) an extra e is added.

52

Ending

When used

Examples

–

Nouns in -o, -e, -ie.

drzewo: drzew pióro: piór
jezioro: jezior miasto: miast
serce: serc lato: lat

–

Note vowel changes and
addition of e.

morze: mórz pole: pól słowo: słów
hwibto: hwiat okno: okien
jabłko: jabłek pibtro: pibter
krzesło: krzeseł But: dziecko: dzieci
(same as nom. plural).

–

In nouns in -cie or -nie,
loss of ending exposes soft
consonants ci, ni. These
become q, s.

zdjbcie: zdjbd mieszkanie:
mieszkaf hniadanie: hniadaf

Example

Nominative

Genitive

Polskie miasta sn piokne.
Polish towns are pretty.

Historia miast jest ciekawa.
The history of the towns is interesting.

Dzieci majn zabawki.
The children have toys.

Zabawki dzieci sn nowe.
The children’s toys are new.

Less frequently, endings -ion or -nt occur. Endings -i, -y and -ów are rare.

12

Ending

When used

Example

ion

Most nouns in -io use plural
stem -ion.

imib: imion ramib: ramion
But: (young animals, by analogy
with zwierzb) jagnib: jagniat
irebib: irebiat prosib: prosiat

Possession
(plural
nouns);
whose

nt

Nouns in -o alone. Plural stem
-ot becomes -nt.

dziewczb: dziewczat
zwierzb: zwierzat ksiajb: ksiajat

i, y

A few nouns, usually of 3
syllables, with soft consonant
before ending.

narzbdzie: narzbdzi
wybrzeje: wybrzejy

ów

Nouns in -um.

muzeum: muzeów
gimnazjum: gimnazjów

Examples

Nominative

Genitive

DziewczOta mieszkajn tutaj.
The girls live here.

Dom dziewczNt jest duwy.
The girls’ house is large.

Asking ‘whose?’
Whose? is czyj? It agrees in number and gender with the item possessed,
not with the possessor.
Singular

Nom.

Plural

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Non-men

Men

czyj

czyja

czyje

czyje

czyi

Czyj dom jest stary?
To jest czyja matka?
Czyje dziecko jest chore?
To sn czyje ksinwki?
Czyi koledzy czekajn?

Whose
Whose
Whose
Whose
Whose

house is old?
mother is that?
child is ill?
books are these?
friends are waiting?

53

12

Exercise 1

Possession
(plural
nouns);
whose

Write the genitive singular and plural of these nouns [All end in -ka (fem.)
or -ko (neut.)].
1 matka
2 wojsko

3 lekarka
4 jabłko

5 córka
6 łójko

7 nazwisko
8 bluzka

Exercise 2
Write the genitive singular and plural of these masculine nouns.
1 wujek

2 słoik

3 kieliszek

4 patyk

5 czajnik

6 sznurek

Exercise 3
Using czyj, czyja, czyje, rewrite the sentences as shown. The item possessed
is singular, the possessor is plural. Watch the gender.
Pokój (singular), nauczyciele (plural).
To jest pokój nauczycieli.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

dom, studenci
zabawka, bracia
jedzenie, psy
ciocia, siostry
klub, Polacy
czasopismo, rodzice
autobus, turyhci

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Czyj to jest pokój?

lalka, córki
zdjbcie, kolejanki
obiad, dzieci
sypialnia, synowie
mieszkanie, panie
sasiadka, koledzy
miasto, przyjaciele

Exercise 4
Use the vocabulary to enter your details, in English, on this form (no
answers given).

54

Data urodzenia
________
Miasto urodzenia ________
Numer telefonu
________
Adres pracy
________
Typ wykształcenia ________
Imib ojca
________
Nazwisko matki
________
Data hlubu
________

Miejsce zamieszkania
Adres mieszkania/domu
Kod pocztowy miasta
Zawód
Znajomohd jbzyków
Imib matki
Zawód mbja/jony
Ilohd dzieci

__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

UNIT 13
Genitive case of adjectives

An adjective associated with a noun which is in the genitive case must
also be in the genitive case.
Below are the genitive case endings of adjectives. Adjectives in -y, -a,
-e differ from those in -i, -a, -ie (notice the i). Masculine and neuter singular are identical. The plural is identical for all genders. Consonant changes
present in the nominative plural for men do not appear in the genitive
plural (dobrzy, polscy but dobrych, polskich).

Adjectives in -y, -a, -e
Singular

Plural

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Non-men

Men

Nom.

dobry

dobra

dobre

dobre

dobrzy

Gen.

-ego
dobrego

-ej
dobrej

-ego
dobrego

-ych
dobrych

-ych
dobrych

Adjectives in -i, -a, -ie, and those few ending in
-i, -ia, -ie
Singular

Plural

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Non-men

Men

Nom.

polski
ostatni

polska
ostatnia

polskie
ostatnie

polskie
ostatnie

polscy
ostatni

Gen.

-iego
polskiego
ostatniego

-iej
polskiej
ostatniej

-iego
polskiego
ostatniego

-ich
polskich
ostatnich

-ich
polskich
ostatnich

55

13
Genitive
case of
adjectives

Nominative

Genitive

Sing.

Masc.
Fem.
Neut.

dobry polski syn
dobra polska córka
dobre polskie dziecko

dobrego polskiego syna
dobrej polskiej córki
dobrego polskiego dziecka

Pl.

Nonmen

dobre polskie domy
córki
dzieci
dobrzy polscy synowie

dobrych polskich domów
córek
dzieci
synów

Men
Example

Piokna pani.
The pretty lady.

Oczy piOknej pani.
The pretty lady’s eyes.

Bogaty syn.
My rich son.

Pienindze bogatego syna.
My rich son’s money.

Małe siostry.
Little sisters.

Matka małych sióstr.
The little sisters’ mother.

Polscy ludzie.
Polish people.

Domy polskich ludzi.
Polish people’s houses.

Exercise 1
Fill in the genitive cases of these adjectives.
Sing. – Masc./Neut.
wesoły
drogi
młody
głupi
ciekawy
chory
wielki
bogaty
biedny
angielski

56

Sing. – Fem.

Plural – All genders

Exercise 2

13

Write the genitive singular of:

Genitive
case of
adjectives

1
2
3
4
5
6

brytyjski chłopiec
miły wujek
mały brat
zmbczony pan
czarny pies
młoda matka

7
8
9
10
11
12

niska dziewczynka
ładna siostra
pibkne zwierzb
niebieskie morze
nowe miasto
duje museum

Exercise 3
Write a sentence to link the subject and verb (Col. 1) with the most sensible object (Col. 2). Then write another sentence in which the original
object is now the subject, e.g.
Młoda nauczycielka czyta Stary dziadek kocha
ciekawA ksiAJkB.
inteligentnego wnuka.
KsiAJka młodej
nauczycielki jest ciekawa.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

malutkie niemowlb
bogaty biznesmen
miła babcia
małe dziecko
młoda nauczycielka
stary pan
stary dziadek
pibkna pani
biedna studentka
duja rodzina
polski profesor
młody maj

Wnuk starego dziadka jest
inteligentny.
ma
ma
kocha
ma
czyta
ma
kocha
ma
czyta
ma
czyta
kocha

trudne czasopismo
ciekawa ksiAJka
siwe włosy
drogi samochód
duje mieszkanie
ładna suknia
nowa zabawka
niskie łójeczko
młoda jona
czarny kot
inteligentny wnuk
tania gazeta

57

13

Exercise 4

Genitive
case of
adjectives

Complete the sentence giving the possessive (genitive singular) of the
words in brackets, e.g.
Praca młodego dentysty (młody dentysta) jest trudna.
1
2
3
4
5

Rower _________ (nowy kolega) jest drogi.
Wóz _________ (stary kierowca) jest zielony.
Obraz _________ (polski artysta) jest znany.
Sklep _________ (bogaty sprzedawca) jest wielki.
Samochód _________ (włoski turysta) jest czerwony.

Exercise 5
Enter the word for whose? Then answer using the genitive plural of the
bracketed words.
Czyj to jest autobus? To jest autobus polskich turystów (polscy turyhci).
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

jest mieszkanie? To jest mieszkanie (polskie studentki).
sa słowniki? To sa słowniki (starzy profesorowie).
sa zabawki? To sa zabawki (młodzi bracia).
jest samochód? To jest samochód (dobrzy koledzy).
sa gazety? To sa gazety (angielscy nauczyciele).
jest czasopismo? To jest czasopismo (pibkne panie).
jest miska? To jest miska (białe króliki).
sa zdjbcia? To sa zdjbcia (hliczne siostry).

Exercise 6
Rewrite correctly. The phrase in italics refers to ‘men’ (see Units 8 and 9).

58

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

My (czekad) na mAdrzy nauczyciele.
ĩona (kochad) dobry mAJ.
Ja (dzwonid) po znajomy lekarz.
Paweł (witad) miły wnuk.
Ty (pytad) o stary dziadek.
Profesorowie (znad) nowi studenci.
Ja (patrzyd) na przystojni chłopcy.
Wy (pamibtad) młodzi panowie.
Marysia (narzekad) na leniwi synowie.
My (odwiedzad) grzeczni koledzy.

UNIT 14
Prepositions followed by genitive case

Many prepositions always cause the following noun or pronoun, and any
associated adjective, to change from its nominative to its genitive case
form. Many of these prepositions show the static position of one object
relative to another. Note that od is optional after niedaleko.
blisko, koło
obok
daleko od
niedaleko [od]
w pobliwu

near
beside,
next to
far from
near
near

naprzeciw[ko]
u
wuród
wzdłuw
dokoła, naokoło

opposite
at house,
shop of
among
along length of
around

Examples (brackets show nominative case)
Kouciół jest blisko ratusza
(ratusz).
The church is near the town hall.

Poczta jest naprzeciw apteki
(apteka).
The post office is opposite the
chemist’s.

Ola mieszka obok cukierni
(cukiernia).
Ola lives next to the sweet shop.

Bolek mieszka u babci (babcia).
Bolek lives at his grandmother’s.

Mieszkam daleko od koucioła
(kohciół).
I live far from the church.

Jesteu wUród przyjaciół (przyjaciel).
You are among friends.

Park jest niedaleko [od] dworca
(dworzec).
The park is not far from the
station.

Ido wzdłuW rzeki (rzeka).
I’m going along the river.

Domy sn w pobliWu łnk (łaka).
The houses are near meadows.

Pies lata naokoło dziecka (dziecko).
The dog is running round the child.

59

Some other prepositions always followed by the genitive case are:

14
Prepositions
plus genitive
case

do
od
dla
z(e)
bez
mimo

to, towards, into
from
for
out of, from
without
despite

podczas
w cingu
według
zamiast
[o]prócz
z powodu

during
in the course of
according to
instead of
apart from, except
because of, due to

Examples (brackets show nominative case)
Ido od domu do domu (dom).
I go from house to house.

Czytam podczas lekcji (lekcja).
I read during the lesson.

Włów lody do lodówki
(lodówka).
Put the ice cream into the fridge.

Mam czas w ciNgu tygodnia
(tydzief).
I have time during the week.

To jest dla Pawła od brata
(Paweł, brat).
This is for Paul from his brother.

Według Kasi zupa jest
smaczna (Kasia).
According to Kate the soup tastes
nice.

Dzwonio z hotelu (hotel).
I ring from the hotel.

Zamiast chleba jem bułko (chleb).
Instead of bread I am eating a roll.

Ido do miasta bez pieniodzy
(pieniadz).
I’m going to town without money.

Oprócz matki jest tu ojciec
(matka).
Apart from mother, father is here
too.

Mimo uniegu jado do cioci
(hnieg, ciocia).
Despite the snow I’m travelling to
my aunt’s.

Nie ido z powodu grypy
(grypa).
I’m not going because of ’flu.

To aid pronunciation an e is added to bez, od and z before the personal
pronoun mnie (Unit 15) and before difficult consonant groups, e.g.
Wracam ze szkoły.
I return from school.
Prezent jest ode mnie.
The present is from me.
60

On gra beze mnie.
He plays without me.

WracaQ (to return) [behaves like mieszkaD]
wracaq z (from a place or activity)
Wracamy z miasta/z pracy.
We return from town/from work.

14
Prepositions
plus genitive
case

Dzieci wracajn ze szkoły.
The children return from school.
wracaq od (from visiting a person)
Wracam od wujka/od dentysty.
I return from uncle’s/from the dentist’s.
Magda wraca od kolewanek.
Magda returns from her girlfriends’ [house, understood].

Exercise 1
Change each noun into its genitive case form as required by the preposition do.
Example: Idb do miasta (miasto). Complete. IdB do _________
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

teatr, bank, kohciół, dom, zamek, ogród, las.
koledzy, bracia, rodzice, przyjaciele, studenci.
kwiaciarnia, apteka, szkoła, ksibgarnia, toaleta.
kino, muzeum, mieszkanie, dziecko, łójko.

Exercise 2
Andrzej is unhappy with his basic facilities. Complete his statement.
(a) Tutaj mam pokój bez _________
telefon, radio, magnetowid, telewizor, hwiatło, lodówka, centralne
ogrzewanie.
(b) Miałem (I had) wszystko u _________
wujek, ciotka, babcia, siostra, brat, syn, córka, Mama, ojciec, dziadek.

61

14

Exercise 3

Prepositions
plus genitive
case

Rewrite the plural nouns (in brackets) in the form required by the preposition.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Whród (Polacy) i (Polki) jest miło.
Mam list od (siostry) i od (bracia).
Według (nauczyciele) i (nauczycielki) Kasia jest inteligentna.
Dziadek ma prezenty dla (wnukowie) i (wnuczki).
Piotruh mieszka naprzeciwko (sklepy), (banki) i (biura).
Zamiast (bułki) i (jaja) mam chleb i ser.
Podczas (koncerty) i (sztuki) nie rozmawiamy.

Exercise 4
Change the phrase in brackets to the form required by the preposition.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Idb do (nowa szkoła).
Dzwonib do (dobra kolejanka).
Mieszkam obok (ładny park).
Zamek jest blisko (stare muzeum).
Antoni mieszka u (miły kolega).
Wracamy z (długi koncert).
Oprócz (mała siostra) mam dujego brata.
Zamiast (czerwone róje) mam jółte tulipany.
Mamy cukierki dla (grzeczne dzieci).
Babcia wraca od (młody wnuk).

Exercise 5
Complete each phrase with a preposition, then find their meanings.
do

62

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

dla

z

od

do

z

od

bez

Student _________ liceum.
Pokój _________ widoku.
Proszek _________ bólu głowy.
Szczotka _________ włosów.
Łójeczko _________ dziecka.
Wino _________ porzeczek.
Klucz _________ garaju.
Papier _________ listów.
Szczoteczka _________ zbbów.
Kołnierz _________ płaszcza.

od

do
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

Currant wine.
Hairbrush.
Writing paper.
Coat collar.
Headache powder.
Toothbrush.
Viewless room.
High school student.
Child’s crib.
Garage key.

UNIT 15
Verbs with genitive case object;
prepositional pronouns (genitive)

The genitive case is vital in Polish. It shows possession, but also expresses
the direct object after some positive verbs (for no clear reason) and after
all negative verbs (Unit 22) unless the verb itself is one of not many which
demand use of a different case.

Genitive case verbs
Four common verbs which use the genitive case for the direct object are:
słuchad listen to
szukad look for

potrzebowad need
ujywad use

Słucham radia. (radio)
I listen to the radio.

Potrzebujo spokoju. (spokój)
I need peace.

Szukam pracy. (praca)
I’m looking for a job.

Uwywam farby. (farba)
I use paint.

Genitive case pronouns
The direct object of genitive case verbs like the above is often replaced
by genitive case pronouns.
Singular

Plural

I

you

he

she

it

we

you

they
(men)

they
(non-men)

Nom.

ja

ty

on

ona

ono

my

wy

oni

one

Gen.

mnie
me

cio
you

go
him

jej
her

go
it

nas
us

was
you

ich
them

ich
them

63

15
Verbs with
genitive case
object

The pronouns cio and go cannot start a sentence or carry the sentence
stress. In such situations use the emphatic forms, ciebie and jego.
Słucham ojca.
I listen to my father.

Słucham go.
I listen to him.

Jego słucham.
I listen to him.

Szukam matki.
Szukam jej.
I’m looking for mother. I’m looking for her.
Potrzebujo ksinwek.
I need books.

Potrzebujo ich.
I need them.

Uwywam masła.
I use butter.

Uwywam go.
I use it.

Ciebie potrzebujo.
I need you.

Genitive case prepositional pronouns
A different set of pronouns is used after genitive case prepositions (e.g.
bez, dla, od). They all begin with ‘n’, a historical remnant (e.g. on + jego =
niego). Only him, her, it and them (shown in bold italics below) exist. For
other persons, use the genitive forms shown below.
Singular

Plural

I

you

he

she

it

we

you

they
(men)

they
(non-men)

Nom.

ja

ty

on

ona

ono

my

wy

oni

one

Gen.

MNIE
me

CIEBIE
you

niego
him

niej
her

niego
it

nas
us

was
you

nich
them

nich
them

Note: To aid pronunciation an e is added to bez, od and z before mnie.

64

Preposition plus noun

Preposition plus pronoun

Piotr ma prezent dla brata.
Idb do miasta bez siostry.
Mam list od rodziców.

Piotr ma prezent dla niego.
Idb do miasta bez niej.
Mam list od nich.
Pieniadze sa ode mnie.
Oni graja beze mnie
To jest list do ciebie.
Wy mieszkacie obok nas.
Ciocia mieszka naprzeciwko was.

Exercise 1

15

Insert the direct object, e.g. Maciej słucha radia (radio).

Verbs with
genitive case
object

1
2
3
4
5
6

Szukamy (tani słownik).
Dzieci słuchaja (matka) i (ojciec).
Studenci szukaja (dobre ksiajki).
Marta szuka (cukierki) i (czekoladki).
Polacy słuchaja (polskie kolbdy).
Bracia szukaja (czarny pies).

Exercise 2
Insert the verb and direct object, e.g. Kolejanki słuchajA (słuchad) telewizji
(telewizja).
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Student (szukad) (ołówki).
Ty (słuchad) (muzyka).
Wy (słuchad) (program).
Łukasz (szukad) (kot).
Ludzie (słuchad) (orkiestra).
Ja (szukad) (dobra kawiarnia).
Marysia (słuchad) (polska piehf).
Ty (szukad) (nowe mieszkanie).

Exercise 3
Select the best object to complete each sentence after potrzebujo, as shown.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Praca jest trudna;
Jestem zmbczony;
Mam ból głowy;
Jestem smutna;
Jestem chory;
Pogoda jest brzydka;
Mieszkam daleko pracy;
Jestem głodna;
Jest deszczowa pogoda;
Jestem biedny;

potrzebujo

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

miłohci
płaszcza
chleba
autobusu
pienibdzy
pomocy
odpoczynku
parasolki
spokoju
lekarza.
65

15

Exercise 4

Verbs with
genitive case
object

Write the correct form of the direct object after the verb uJywam.
1 Do kanapek ujywam chleb, masło, kiełbasa, ser, ogórek, cebula, pomidory
i jajka.
2 Do pracy ujywam ołówki, kredki, papier, długopisy, linijka i komputer.

Exercise 5
Write the correct form of the noun and pronoun, e.g. Piszb do ciotki
(ciotka). Piszb do niej.
PiszB = I write, MówiB = I speak/say.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Mówib do (brat). Mówib do _________.
Piszb do (babcia) i (dziadek). Piszb do _________.
Mówib do (Agata). Mówib do _________.
Piszb do (panowie) i (panie). Piszb do _________.
Jestem zadowolony z (samochód). Jestem zadowolony z _________.
Olga jest zadowolona z (mieszkanie). Olga jest zadowolona z ______.
Jestehmy zadowoleni z (dzieci). Jestehmy zadowoleni z _________.
Jestehcie gotowi do (praca)? Tak. Jestehmy gotowi do _________.

Exercise 6
ciebie
cio

niego
go

niej
jej

nich
ich

Select one pronoun from each pair to fit the sentences below.
1
2
3
4

66

Dzieci słuchaja nauczycieli. Słuchaja _________.
Piszb do Piotra. Piszb do _________.
Mówib do Heleny. Mówib do _________.
Matka kocha _________. (you, sing.)

UNIT 16
Verbs with present tense
-em, -e, -ejn/-edzn

Verbs in this tiny group end in -ieq (but some -ieq verbs belong to other
groups). It has two subdivisions; the ending used by the they part is
different. The verb jeuq also belongs here.
UmieD and rozumieD
Person

Ending

umieD (know how to)

rozumieD (understand)

ja
ty
on/ona/ono
my
wy
oni/one

-em
-esz
-e
-emy
-ecie
-ejN

umiem
umiesz
umie
umiemy
umiecie
umiejN

rozumiem
rozumiesz
rozumie
rozumiemy
rozumiecie
rozumiejN

UmieD is followed by the infinitive.
RozumieD takes a direct object.

Umiem pływaQ. (I can swim.)
Rozumiem lekcjO. (I understand the lesson.)

WiedzieD and jehD
Person

Ending

wiedzieD (know a fact)

jeHD (eat)

ja
ty
on/ona/ono
my
wy
oni/one

-em
-esz
-e
-emy
-ecie
-edzN

wiem
wiesz
wie
wiemy
wiecie
wiedzN

jem
jesz
je
jemy
jecie
jedzN

WiedzieD contrasts with znaD (to know a person, country, language).

Link words gdzie, kiedy, We
Many verbs of knowing, remembering, understanding, asking, believing,
etc. introduce subordinate clauses starting with link words. Notice that the

67

16
Verbs with
present tense
-em, -e,
-ejn/-edzn

verb in the subordinate clause often stands right after the link word. The
comma is necessary. Unlike in English, we cannot omit the word ‘that’.
gdzie (where)
Wiem, gdzie mieszkasz.
Wiemy, gdzie jest bank.
Pyta, gdzie jest matka.

I know where you live.
We know where the bank is.
He asks where mother is.

kiedy (when)
Pamiotam, kiedy masz urlop.
On wie, kiedy mam urodziny.
Pyta, kiedy jest matka.

I remember when your holiday is.
He knows when my birthday is.
He asks when mother is at home.

We (that)
Rozumiem, we jesteu chory.
Oni wiedzn, we mam syna.
Pamiotam, we sn biedni.

I understand (that) you are ill.
They know (that) I have a son.
I remember (that) they are poor.

Exercise 1
Correct the error in each sentence.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

My rozumiemy nauczyciel.
Ja umie grad w karty.
Chłopiec je kiełbasa.
Dziewczynki jeda jabłka.
Ojciec wie, gdzie kolega mieszkad.
Kolejanki umiedza pływad.
Ja wiem, kiedy sklep sa otwarty.
Marysia umiem czytad.

Exercise 2
Insert the best link word, kiedy, gdzie, or Je and translate the sentence.

68

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Córka wie, _________ jest autobus do Krakowa.
Nie wiem, _________ jest poczta.
Turyhci wiedza, _________ wycieczka jest droga.
Nie pamibtamy, _________ oni mieszkaja.
Ojciec wie, _________ syn jest leniwy.
Nie wiecie, _________ macie egzamin?
Dziecko rozumie, _________ owoce sa zdrowe.
Pani nie wie, _________ bank jest czynny?

Exercise 3

16

Translate, using the correct verb for ‘to know’ (znaD, umieD, wiedzieD).

Verbs with
present tense
-em, -e,
-ejn/-edzn

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Anka knows Warsaw and Kraków.
Kasia can read and write.
The mother knows when the child is ill.
The boy knows how to swim.
I know that you have time for coffee.
I know where Piotr lives.
The men know the teachers (masc.)
We know that you (sing.) know Magda.

Exercise 4
Find the correct verb for each sentence.
a rozumie
e jedzn
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

b umiecie
f znam

c znasz
g znajn

d wie
h wiemy

Profesorowie _________ studentów.
Dzieci _________ bułki na obiad.
On _________, gdzie mieszkaja koledzy.
Ja _________ Pawła i Tomka.
Wy _________ grad w tenisa.
Ty _________ jbzyk polski.
My nie _________, gdzie jest szpital.
Teresa _________ lekcjb.

Exercise 5
Write the correct form of the verb, and of the nouns (italicised) following
the genitive prepositions.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Synowie (jehd) obiad u wujek. Wujek mieszka niedaleko rodzina.
Ja (rozumied) lekcjb bez pomoc.
Dzieci (wiedzied), je prezent jest od ciocia.
Idb do bank. (Wiedzied), je bank jest blisko szkoła.
Mimo brzydka pogoda Krysia (jehd) lody na deser.
Wy (umied) pływad. Basen jest naprzeciwko park obok koHciół.
Lekarz (wiedzied), je pacjent (znad) dentystb.
Pasajerowie (rozumied), je pociag do Warszawa jest opóiniony.

69

UNIT 17
Cardinal numbers 1 to 4

These behave like adjectives, agreeing in number, gender and case with
the noun following. Most complex are ‘one’ and ‘two’. ‘Three’ and ‘four’
are easier. Numbers from ‘five’ onwards have only two forms.
From ‘three’ onwards, the number does not change when referring to
masculine (non-men), feminine and neuter nouns in the nominative and
accusative cases.

Jeden/jedna/jedno (one)
‘One’ agrees in gender and case with its associated noun. It also means
‘a certain’. The plural jedne/jedni means ‘some’ (from a total number). Use
jedne before ‘plural only’ nouns, e.g. jedne spodnie (one pair of trousers).
Singular
Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Non-men

Men

Nom.

jeden

jedna

jedno

jedne

jedni

Acc.

jeden [non-alive]
jednego [alive]

jedna

jedno

jedne

jednych

Gen.

jednego

jednej

jednego

jednych

jednych

Nominative

Accusative

Genitive

jeden brat, kot, stół
one brother, cat, table

Mam jednego brata, kota.
I have one brother, cat.

Szukam jednego brata, kota.
I’m looking for one brother, cat.

jedna siostra, jedno
dziecko, jedne drzwi
one sister, child, door

Mam jeden stół, jednn
siostro, jedno dziecko.
I have one table, sister, child.

Szukam jednego stołu, jednej
siostry, jednego dziecka.
I’m looking for one table,
sister, child.

Jedni chłopcy czekajn.
Some boys are waiting.

Czekam na jednego pana,
jednn panin, jedno dziecko.
I’m waiting for one gentleman,
one lady, one child.

Piszo do jednej córki, jednego
wnuka.
I write to one daughter,
grandson.

Jedne dzieci upiewajn.
Some children sing.

70

Plural

Jedyny, jedyna, jedyne means only one.
To jest mój jedyny długopis.

Jeszcze jeden/jedna/jedne means one more.
Mam jeszcze jeden długopis.

17

Dwaj/dwie/dwa (two)
‘Two’ agrees in gender and case with its associated noun. For groups of
mixed gender, children, young animals and ‘plural only’ nouns, there is
a collective form.

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.

Masc. (men)

Masc. (non-men)
and neut.

Fem.

Collective

dwaj*
dwóch
dwóch

dwa
dwa
dwóch

dwie
dwie
dwóch

dwoje**
dwoje
dwojga

Cardinal
numbers
1 to 4

* Dwaj, and trzej, czterej below, have a subject in the nominative plural and a plural
verb. Colloquially, dwaj, trzej, czterej are replaced by dwóch, trzech, czterech which
have a subject in the genitive plural and a singular verb.
Dwaj/trzej/czterej panowie czekajN.

BUT

Dwóch/trzech/czterech panów czeka.
(2/3/4 men are waiting.)

** Dwoje, and troje, czworo below, have a subject in the genitive case and a singular verb,
e.g. dwoje noJyc leJy na stole (lit. two of scissors is lying on the table).

Nominative

Accusative

Genitive

dwaj synowie
dwa ołówki
dwie matki
dwa drzewa
dwoje dzieci
dwoje drzwi
Two sons, pencils,
mothers, trees,
children, doors.

Mam dwóch synów, dwie córki.
I have two sons, daughters.

Szukam dwóch braci, dwóch
sióstr, dwojga dzieci.
I’m looking for two brothers,
sisters, children.

Mam dwoje dzieci.
I have two children.
Pokój ma dwa okna, dwoje drzwi.
The room has two windows, doors.
Czekam na dwóch panów,
dwie panie, dwoje dzieci.
I’m waiting for two gentleman,
ladies, children.

Piszo do dwóch panów,
dwóch pas, dwojga dzieci.
I write to two men, ladies,
children.

Trzej/trzy (three) and czterej/cztery (four)
Here, nouns divide into two groups – masculine (men), and all others.
Differences exist only in the nominative and accusative cases. For groups
of mixed gender, children, young animals and ‘plural only’ nouns, there
are collective forms. For * and ** see under dwaj above.
71

17
Cardinal
numbers
1 to 4

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.

Masc. (men)

Other nouns

Collective

trzej*
trzech
trzech

trzy
trzy
trzech

troje**
troje
trojga

czterej*
czterech
czterech

cztery
cztery
czterech

czworo**
czworo
czworga

Nominative

Direct object

Genitive

trzej/czterej panowie
three/four men

Mam trzech synów, cztery córki.
I have three sons, four daughters.

trzy/cztery koty,
kobiety, okna
three/four cats,
women, windows

Mam troje/czworo dzieci.
I have three/four children.

Pokój dla trzech/
czterech panów, pas.
A room for three/
four men, ladies.

Pokój ma troje drzwi.
The room has three doors.

Prezent od trojga/
czworga dzieci.
A present from three/
four children.

Exercise 1
Put the correct form of jeden before:
dziecko, pani, nauczycielka, kierowca, talerz, pan, imib, ulica,
przyjaciel, Angielka, miasto, sklep, Polak, pole, noc, nazwisko,
mbjczyzna, zdjbcie, gałai, zwierzb.

Exercise 2
Put the correct form of dwa before:
kolejanki, okna, rzeczy, kraje, dni, koledzy, noce, lata, dzieci, lekarze,
psy, łójka, lekcje, turyhci, ptaki, pisklbta, pomarafcze, drzwi, autobusy,
jabłka, niemowlbta, rzeki, miesiace.

Exercise 3
Put the correct form of jeden in the gap (accusative case needed).

72

1
2
3
4

Dwaj panowie czekaja na _________ pania.
Krysia ma _________ koguta, _________ kaczkb i _________ pisklb.
Basia pamibta _________ piehf i _________ kolbdb.
Znamy _________ aktora i _________ aktorkb.

5 Antek ma _________ ksiajkb, _________ zeszyt i _________ słownik.
6 Mam _________ kolegb i _________ kolejankb.
7 Pokój ma _________ okno i _________ drzwi.

17
Cardinal
numbers
1 to 4

Exercise 4
Match the numerals to the gaps. Use each numeral once.
trzy trzej troje trzech trzech
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

cztery cztery czterej czworo czterech

Agata kocha _________ (3) chłopców.
Odwiedzam _________ (3) kolejanki.
Znamy _________ (4) polskie miasta.
Ciocia ma _________ (4) dzieci.
Pan Kowalski ma _________ (4) córki.
_________ (3) panowie znaja jbzyk polski.
Michał ma _________ (4) kolegów.
_________ (3) dzieci czeka na autobus.
_________ (4) polscy autorzy sa dobrzy.
Mam _________ (3) braci.

Exercise 5
Translate:
3 trams, 2 girls, 4 apples, 2 tables, 3 chairs, 2 doors, 4 ladies, 2 men,
4 cats, 2 towns, 3 coffees, 2 roses, 4 cars, 3 students, 2 flats, 3 rooms,
2 teas, 2 children.

73

UNIT 18
Numbers 5 to 20; indefinite numbers;
quantities

Numbers above 4
These are followed by the genitive plural of the noun. Note the special form
for ‘men’ nouns – pibciu, szehciu, siedmiu, ohmiu, dziewibciu, dziesibciu,
jedenastu, dwunastu, trzynastu, czternastu, pibtnastu, szesnastu, siedemnastu,
osiemnastu, dziewibtnastu, dwudziestu.
5
6
7
8
9
10

pioq
szeuq
siedem
osiem
dziewioq
dziesioq

pibd kotów
osiem kobiet
oumiu przyjaciół
dziesibd dzieci

11
12
13
14
15
16

jedenaucie
dwanaucie
trzynaucie
czternaucie
piotnaucie
szesnaucie

17 siedemnaucie
18 osiemnaucie
19 dziewiotnaucie
20 dwadzieucia

dwanahcie domów
dwunastu panów
czternahcie ksiajek
pibtnahcie miast

piotnastu lekarzy
dziewibtnahcie rzeczy
dwadziehcia matek
dwudziestu kolegów

Note these unusual plurals often used with numbers.
dzies day tydzies week
miesinc month
dwa dni, tygodnie,
miesince, lata (nom.)
pioq dni, tygodni, miesiocy, lat (gen.)

rok year (pl. lata = summers)
two days, weeks, months, years
five days, weeks, months, years

Indefinite numbers

74

Some numbers are indefinite. They have a special form in the nominative
and accusative cases for ‘men’ nouns. Indefinite numbers are regarded as
quantities and are followed by the genitive case of the noun. When acting
as subjects, they take a singular verb.

Nom./Acc.

(masc. men)
(other nouns)

Gen.

A few

Several

Many

So many

How many?

paru
paro

kilku
kilka

wielu
wiele

tylu
tyle

ilu
ile

paru

kilku

wielu

tylu

ilu

Nom.

Acc.

Jest wielu uczniów i wiele uczennic.
There are many boy and girl pupils.

Mam parO kubków i wiele filiwanek.
I have a few mugs and many cups.

Paru studentów czeka.
A few students are waiting.

Mamy tylu dobrych przyjaciół.
We have so many good friends.

Ilu studentów czeka?
How many students are waiting?

Czekam na kilka pas.
I’m waitin